What are the differences between motivation and task engagement?

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This is part of my Dissertation Literature Review, if it is done nicely then I will ask you again to write the rest of my literature review by writing the writer # when I will place the order for the other parts of the Lit- Review.

 

What are the differences between motivation and task engagement?

 

Topic of this section: Motivation and Task Engagement

 

This part should include 2 long paragraphs. First, you (The writer) need to find many researches explaining the importance of motivation and task engagement in education in general and in language learning in particular. Start with a good topic sentence that explains what are you going to focus on in the following paragraphs. And then cite many researches (at least five, six authors in one citation) saying the same thing. This should be done in one long paragraph. So, you have to look at the research and then come up with your own words and then cite.

 

After that you move down to the next long paragraph explaining the differences between motivation and task engagement. First, provide the definitions of each one. For example, start with Motivation, you look first in the literature and start to write all the definitions you found related to Motivation. Find definitions that has words like: “goal to reach”, “eager to”, “interested”, and “desire to do something in general”. Then cite all of these definitions you found in the literature. You can have three or four famous definitions and in each one cite many authors who defined motivation in similar or in the same way. After you write many definitions for Motivation, provide a summary of your understanding based on the previous definitions. Then, find the definitions of Task engagement in the literature and cite many (5 and above) authors in each definition. Find the researchers who defined Task Engagement in similar way and cite all of them.  Summarized your understanding of the task engagement definitions based on what you will find in the literature. At the end of this long paragraph, CLEARLY explain the differences you found in the literature between Motivation and Task Engagement and then cite as many as you can. This is a lit review, everything should be cited.

 

 

 

THIS IS ONE ARTICLE MIGHT HELP YOU IN THIS SECTION:

Reference: Meltzer and Hamann (2004). Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolecent English Language Learners Through Content Area Learning-PART ONE: FOCUS ON MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT.

 

 

This is another section and you (The Writer) will write one long paragraph as an introduction to this section.

Important: This article Engagement and practice in classroom learning, language, and technology. IATEFL conference selection 2015)”is very important article and you have to read it carefully because it is exactly what I need you to do. You use it as an example and as a reference for sure. Note: Do not copy and paste my own words and some of these examples I took from the Internet. You (The writer) have to use your own words and creativity while writing this paper. I am only providing you with examples to make sure that you understand my point.

Based on the literature, What are the common engagement principles?

 

Engagement Principles:

 

 

  • Authenticity:

This is about if the task is authentic to the EFL students then they are engaged in their language learning. You start this first principle with a general idea (Topic sentence) then Give definition or definitions to this principle from the literature and cite many authors for those definitions. Also, give specific details explaining what does it mean to find the language learners engaged with their authentic task? For example, find articles that state something like: “In order to engage the language learners in any task, that task should be authentic to them, they should be able to perceive that task as authentic to them so they can learn the language better.” You have to cite many articles for this principle. Your citation must be professional. For example, you have to read different and many seminal and current articles talking about Authenticity and authentic task for language learners to see their level of engagement because if their level of engagement is going high that means they are learning the language effectively and sufficiently. Then write a summary using your own words of all of these articles you will find especially the ones they are alike in result and then cite all the authors for those articles. You have to be able to cite many researchers after one or two long sentences. This introduction, definition, and extra explanation about Authenticity should be written in two long paragraphs just explaining the idea of Authenticity and how it is important to provide authentic task for language learners to engage them in the language learning process.

Then you have to find more recent articles starting from 2010 to 2016 and focusing on the importance and effective of providing authentic task to the language learners to engage them when learning the target language. Then, you have to summarize each of those recent studies in 3 or maximum 4 sentences. For example, A study titled “Captioned Television as Comprehensible Input: Effects of Incidental Word Learning from Context for Language Minority Students “and done by Neuman & Koskinen (1992) investigated whether comprehensible input in the form of captioned television might affect bilingual students ‘acquisition of vocabulary and conceptual knowledge. Participants were 129 bilingual seventh and eighth grades from Southeast and assigned for four groups: captioned TV, TV, reading along and listening, and text book only. This study shows that captioned television affects the language learners’ acquisition in a positive way by providing them with a particularly rich language environment which allow the language learners to learn words incidentally via context (Neuman and Koskinen, 1992). Another study shows that …………………………..

So, you have to summarize each study in an accurate way mentioning the study title, year and author (s). You have to write the participants nationality and numbers or sizes. You have to write what methodology the author (s) used to do that study and how he/she did that study(procedure). And finally, you have to write the result of that study which should be something saying that Providing an authentic task is important to engage the language learners which will lead to an effective learning and great achievement. This part should be done in two long paragraphs. Each of these two paragraphs should include at least 5-10 recent studies. So, total of four long paragraphs should be written in this first engagement principle (Authenticity). At the end of this engagement principle you (the writer) have to provide a conclusion which is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about authenticity and then make a transition to the other engagement principle (Connections/Interest).

  • Connections/Interest:

 

This is another engagement principle found in the Literature (Connections/Interest). Under this principle you (the writer) should include four long paragraphs as well: two long paragraphs to introduce Connections/Interest as another major principle in Task Engagement that will enhance the language learners’ engagement if the given task is going to help the language learners to make connection to their lives activity and to what they know already and if the task will include each student interest. Define the principles CONNECTION/INTEREST and explain them in depth and cite all the researchers who introduced and talked about those principles in the literature review as ones of the important engagement principles in students’ task engagement. The other two long paragraphs should include recent studies showing that Connections/Interest are important in creating any task or materials for the language learners to be engaged in that task and therefore, acquire the language in an effective way. Just follow the outline I created for AUTHENTICITY PRINCIPLE exactly as it is. Example of the people (researchers) who found connection/interest principles to be important in any given task for language learners and show that it was effective since students were engaged and learned the language effectively include: Meltzer & Hammann (2004) Make sure it is 2004 not 2005. And you (the writer should look for others of course maybe by looking at the references page of the articles I provided you with. At the end of this engagement principle you (the writer) have to provide a conclusion which is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about Connections/Interests and then make a transition to the other engagement principle (Social Interaction and Communication).

 

  • Social interaction and communication:

 

This principle needs to have four long paragraphs as well written in the same way the previous two principles (Authenticity, Connections/Interest) have been written. This is about how creating a task that will let the language learners interact and communicate with each other and with the text to negotiate the meaning will assure that the learners will be engaged while doing that task and therefore learn the language effectively. Follow the same outline I created for AUTHENTICITY and COONECTIONS/ INTEREST Principles.  These are all engagement principles; you write each one in the same way you will write the first one (Authenticity). Example of researchers who talked about this principle is: Meltzer and Hamann (2004).  Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolecent English Language Learners Through Content Area Learning. Also look at Vygotsky, L.S. 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. And others you should look for them in the literature. At the end of this engagement principle you (the writer) have to provide a conclusionwhich is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about Social Interaction and Communication and then make a transition to the other engagement principle (Practice and Feedback).

  • Practice and Feedback

This principle needs to have four long paragraphs as well written in the same way the previous principles (Authenticity, Connections/Interest/ Social Interaction and Communication) have been written. This is about how just-in-time feedback will engage the students in answering any task instead of providing the feedback a week later after the language learners submit their task answers. It is important to provide the language learners with the instant feedback throughout the task in order to keep them engaged and to use the feedback effectively to enhance their language learning process. Follow the same outline I created for AUTHENTICITY and CONNECTIONS/ INTEREST Principles. You should look for articles talking about this principle as it is supporting students’ task engagement in the literature.

 

  • Challenge/skills Balance:

This principle needs to have four long paragraphs as well written in the same way the previous principles (Authenticity, Connections/Interest/ Social interaction and communication/ Practice and feedback) have been written. This engagement principle is described well in Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1990.  Flow: the psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.  Also look at this article: Egbert, J. 2003. A study of flow theory in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 87/4: 419-518.  Follow the same outline I created for AUTHENTICITY and CONNECTIONS/ INTEREST Principles. You should look for other articles for this principle in the literature. At the end of this engagement principle you (the writer) have to provide a conclusion which is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about Challenge/ Skills Balance and then make a transition to the other Section which is about Task engagement principles and use of Learning Management System (LMS).

 

 

SECOND SECTION

 

Topic of this second Section: Link Between Task Engagement Principles and Use of Learning Management System (LMS).

 

Only one introduction paragraph should be written under this section. In this section you (the writer is going to write general sentence as a topic sentence then moving to more specific sentences e.g. In recent years, technology with the focus of LMS has been used to assist, enhance, and provide opportunities for language learners (Cite…). Many teachers have tried to incorporate various forms of LMS to engage and support their teaching and to meet the students’ interest in using specific kind of LMS and therefore to engage the students in any given task to help the language learners in the learning process (Cite). Do not forget to cite anything you write because this is a literature review. Everything you write you have to cite from the literature. Then, you conclude this introduction paragraph with something like: Research shows that the use of LMS can meet the engagement principles to help EFL students being engaged especially if they were provided with the appropriate task (Cite the research that said so).

 

 

 

  • Authenticity and the use of LMS:

 

You start with a topic sentence so the reader could understand what this paragraph is about. Under this section, you (the writer) have to provide suggestions from your mind of how LMS can be used with the engagement principle (Authenticity). After offering your suggestion you might need to find studies to support your suggestions. So, FIRST, GIVE YOUR SUGGESTION OF HOW LMS CAN BE USED WITH THE ENGAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (Authenticity). SECOND, FIND ARTICLES THAT MIGHT SUPPORT YOUR SUGGESTIONS.  So, you have look first at LMS features to be able to give great suggestions and say something like (all of the LMS has instruction page and in order to use it effectively the teachers can post materials that other students can learn from or post any materials that is perceived by students as something that they can learn from and that it is important to their learning). Or the students can be asked to post any materials they think it is important to their learning or it is something they can learn from it. This should explain how engagement principles could fit in the LMS to help the students being more engaged in their learning process. Find good articles talking about how the use of LMS support the engagement principle (Authenticity). Find many research focusing on how engagement principle AUTHENTICITY could fit in the LMS to help the students being engaged and then synthesize those articles in one or two sentences and at the end of this one or two sentences cite all of the authors who said the same thing about this use of LMS and how the engagement principles can fit in it to support EFL students’ engagement while doing any task. Write about two long paragraphs to explain this section accurately, provide suggestions of the use of LMS and authenticity, and cite studies show that providing an authentic task on LMS could enhance EFL students’ engagement. At the end of this paragraph you (the writer) have to provide a conclusion which is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about Authenticity and the use of LMS and then make a transition to the other Section which is about Connections/Interest and the use of LMS.

 

 

Connections/Interest and the use of LMS:  

 

You start with a topic sentence so the reader could understand what this paragraph is about. Then you will follow the same instructions I wrote earlier in the previous section about Authenticity and the use of LMS. Also two long Paragraphs in this section. So, again you look at the LMS features and see which feature or features is going to support the engagement principle (Connection/ interest). For example, find a feature on LMS that will allow the EFL students to write an essay about their story when they born so they will get a chance to communicate with the parents and with the family member. At the end of this paragraph you (the writer) have to provide a conclusionwhich is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about Connections/Interest and the use of LMS and then make a transition to the other Section which is about Social Interaction and communication and the use of LMS.

 

 

  • Social interaction/ Communication and the use of LMS:

 

You start with a topic sentence so the reader could understand what this paragraph is about. Then you will follow the same instructions I wrote earlier in the previous section about Authenticity and the use of LMS. Also two long Paragraphs in this section.  The same idea where you will look at the LMS features and see which one support the engagement principle (Social interaction/communication). So, most of the LMS have Discussion Board and the teacher can post any material that will enhance students’ engagement by interacting and communicating with each other via the discussion board on that specific task. Find studies to support that. At the end of this paragraph you (the writer) have to provide a conclusion which is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about Social Interaction / Communication and the use of LMS and then make a transition to the other Section which is about Practice and Feedback and the use of LMS.

 

 

 

  • Practice and Feedback and the use of LMS:

 

You start with a topic sentence so the reader could understand what this paragraph is about. Then you will follow the same instructions I wrote earlier in the previous section about Authenticity and the use of LMS. Also two long Paragraphs in this section. Again find a feature that will support the engagement principle (Practice and Feedback). At the end of this paragraph you (the writer) have to provide a conclusion which is a summary of the important thing you mentioned in this section about Practice and Feedback and the use of LMS and then make a transition to the other Section which is about Challenge/Skills Balance and the use of LMS.

 

  • Challenge/skills Balance and the use of LMS:

 

You start with a topic sentence so the reader could understand what this paragraph is about. Then you will follow the same instructions I wrote earlier in the previous section about Authenticity and the use of LMS. Also two long Paragraphs in this section. Again find a feature that will support the engagement principle (Challenge/skills balance).

 

 

Finally, in a long conclusion paragraph, you have to summarize the important thing you talked about in this WHOLE SECTION All of the engagement principles with the use of LMS and how use of LMS could increase the students’ task engagement in the use of LMS.

 

 

 

 

 

Please make sure that you are using your own words (paraphrasing) everything except the definitions maybe you can quote them and give the page number for citation. Otherwise, do not plagiarism. Please make sure you are using APA style correctly. You have to paraphrase all the sentences you are taking from any article or research paper and then cite all of those paraphrased sentences by writing (last name, first name, year) for the in-text citation and at the end of each sentences. If you have two or three quotes in each section then that’s fine but the citation is different (last name, first name; year, page number) for in-text citation. You have to check APA citation because I am not sure.

 

You cannot have one paragraph or one section talking about one article or one author. You should be able to have one paragraph/section with two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, and more different articles and different authors as well. Please make sure you have both seminal (1997,1998,1992,1990 and recent articles 2008-2016). we are not summarizing articles we are trying to make connections between different articles by synthesizing them and then cite many and different authors saying the same thing.

 

 

You have to finish the paper within the given time and try to finish earlier so I can read and check and then send you any problems or mistakes appear in the text.

 

Please write all the research paper you will use to write this Literature Review in the REFERENCES PAGE at the end of the paper in an alphabetical order.

 

Please work hard on this paper.  It is a very important one.

 

Writer. If you have any question regarding this assignment, please do not hesitate to ask using cell-phone or via email.

 

Thank you very much and have a good day.

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