Urinary tract infection

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) can occur anywhere along the urinary tract including urethra, bladder, ureter or kidneys (Huether & McCance, 2017). Bacteria is the most common cause of a UTI infections although UTI can develop from yeast, fungus or parasite (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017). UTI can beclassified as upper or lower according to where they occur along the urinary tract (Imam, 2018). Cystitis is a UTI of the bladder and is more common in women but men can get cystitis (Huether & McCance, 2017). Pyelonephritis is an infections that affects the upper tract, including the kidneys (Huether & McCance, 2017). Cystitis and Pyelonephritis affects more women than men (Imam, 2018). Women are more likely to develop a UTI due to their shorter urethras and close proximity to the rectum (Arcangelo et al., 2017).

Patients with acute cystitis may or may not develop symptoms. Common symptoms of cystitis include frequent, urgent urination that can be painful or burn with urination (Huether & McCance, 2017). While Pyelonephritis can have similar symptoms they also produce chills, fever, pain in the lower back, nausea, and vomiting (Imam, 2018). Both disorders patients will be tested by urinalysis and urine cultures; Pyelonephritis may also include imaging testing to confirm (Imam, 2018). Treatment of cystitis can include increasing fluids, and taking analgesics (Huether & McCance, 2017). Antibiotics are another medication needed for both Cystitis and Pyelonephritis (Arcangelo, et al., 2017). It is vital to identify the correct organism and prescribe the correct antibiotic to treat the UTI (Arcangelo et al., 2017). For treatment of cystitis antibiotics course is usually only needed for 1-3 days while for Pyelonephritis antibiotics are required for 10-14 days (Arcangel et al., 2017).

UTI range from no symptoms to recurrent UTI’s (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Performing a history and physical as well as laboratory tests can help to diagnosis and treat UTI (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Although cystitis may clear up on its own treatment should be tailored towards the organism (Arcangelo et al., 2017. It is also key to repeat tests after course of antibiotics in cases of Pyelonephritis to assure infections has resolved (Arcangelo et al., 2017).

Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Imam, T.H. (2018). Overview of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Retrieved from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/urinary-tract-infections-utis/overview-of-urinary-tract-infections-utis

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