United States of America’s interventions since the Truman’s era to the Reagan’s era






1-United States of America’s interventions since the Truman’s era to the Reagan’s era

The cold war happened in the period between the year 1947 and 1991. During this period the western bloc powers experienced a state of military and political tension among them. The kickoff of the cold war was followed in quick succession by the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization also known famously known as the NATO. This was a military alliance formed by twenty eight member countries with the aim of ensuring their collective defense. The famous North Atlantic Treaty was signed among the member countries with an agreement of a mutual defense against any external aggressor (Foner, Give me Freedom 2006, 154). The cold war was dominated by the NATO, the United States of America, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw pact (History lesson 14). By this time the USA and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is current days Russia. Basically the cold war was a rivalry between the east and the west championed by the United States of America and its affiliate countries against the USSR and its affiliates. However some countries maintained neutrality in the turf and formed the Non-Aligned Movement. The countries include Egypt, Yugoslavia and India.

The cold war did not involve any military combats. It involved psychological rather than the physical warfare. This is chiefly because the two superpowers had the fear of the unknown if they got involved in the military warfare. They both possessed lethal war equipment especially nuclear weapons which were still foreign by the time. They therefore feared for mutual destruction that would result if they got involved in a real battle. Both countries had witnessed the adverse effects of the world wars which ended in the year 1945. The cold war period was ensued by proxy wars in which the main antagonists used their affiliate parties in battles without themselves being involved (History lesson 14). The period was also characterized by massive propaganda campaigns as each super power worked towards gaining favour from other states in the world. Numerous military coalitions were formed during this period and appeals made to the neutral states to join this rivalry (History lesson). Despite the efforts to make it a psychological warfare, numerous battles were fought. These wars include; the Cuban missile crisis, the Vietnam war, the Korean War and the Yom Kippur war.

The NSC-68 was a secretive policy document that was drafted by the United States National Security Council which bore the secretive statements of the USA’s policy on the cold war. The document was ratified in the year 1951 September by the then president Joseph Truman (History lesson 15). This was the steering document of the United States of America in the cold war. The document analyzed the situation that ensued between the Soviet Union and the United States at many standpoints (Foner, Give me freedom, 2006, 134). The group that conceived this idea was in response to a perceived soviet threat. The policy maintained that a military approach towards the rivalry was the best and it gave a little chance for diplomatic action.

This particular policy called for the defense of the western hemisphere in a bid to develop its war-making capabilities. It also provided for the fortification of a conscription base before they reorganized their military structure. The documented also stipulated the conduction of offensives meant to weaken the elements of the Soviet Union until the power balance was completely toppled and the United States and its affiliate countries took over the victory (Foner, Give me freedom 2006, 256). There were plans that were being set to ensure the security of the communication bases that were extremely vital in the offensives. These plans were to cost the United States of America a fortune. It is roughly estimated that full implementation of this foreign policy would cost a whole twenty percent of the country’s Gross National Product.

USA’s interventions

During the course of the cold war the United States took a number of intervention measures in a bid to safeguard its interests. Prior to the cold war, the USA was also involved in a number of overseas interventions. That includes the liberation war of Liberia which was waged by the private American groups with the unofficial USA government support. There existed policies that were being enacted by the United States that resulted in the interventions. The policies stipulated in the National Security council Report of 1950 was the chief reason behind the interventions (Foner, Give me freedom 2006, 253). The foreign policy of the US during the cold war is one of them. The foreign policy outlined the way the United States of America was to interact with foreign nations during the period of the cold war (History lesson 15). The containment policy in which the United States sought to uproot and curb the expansion of communism in the world was the reason behind most political and military decisions the United States of America in the cold war period… Communism was greatly championed by the Soviet Union and its affiliate nations. Some of the interventions that the United States made are as below.

The Korean wars, 1950 to 1953

The Korean War broke out in the year 1950 and came to a halt in the year 1953. The war was between the republic of Korea which is todays South Korea and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea which is the current day North Korea. The war erupted due to the political division of Korea which had occurred after the termination of the Pacific war (History lesson 13). The 1948 general elections in the Korean peninsula were faced by malpractices and skirmishes that resulted in the antagonism between the northern part of the peninsula and the southern part. A political division occurred at the 38th parallel. Diplomatic measures were taken by the two parts but they failed terribly resulting in the eruption of war between the two fronts (History, lesson 13). Before the eruption of the pacific war, Korea was under the colonial power of the Japanese empire. In the battle the republic of Korea was supported by the United Nations while China and the Soviet Union supported the present day North Korea. The United States however under the authority of the then president Joseph Trauman without the consent of the congress sent troops in support of the United Nations envoys and against the Soviet Union which was fighting in the North (Foner, 2006, 365). The decision to intervene was out of the tense atmosphere that surrounded the cold war. The United States of America was also greatly opposed to the adoption of communism by the North Korea.

The US intervention in Iran

In the year 1953 the USA in a project duped the TP AJAX in conjunction with the United Kingdom orchestrated a coup d’état that resulted in the overthrowing of the democratically elected government of Iran. Immediately after the overthrow a military government was put in place and was heavily supported by the United States of America. The Iranian state was rumored to be a sphere of influence for the Soviet Union as well as the British government. This was the chief reason the US took intervention measures to ensure that the Soviet Union did not benefit from the Iran’s wealth of natural resources like petroleum wells (History lesson 13).

USA intervention in Americas

Guatemala is a country in Latin America. In the year 1952 the Nicaraguan president sought power and support from the United States in a bid to overthrow the then Guatemalan leader. This was chiefly because Guatemala under the leadership of the communist party had embraced communism which was being championed by the Soviet Union. The United States of America was greatly opposed to the Soviet Union and their communist ideologies (History Lesson 15). They therefore overthrew the government of Jacob who had adopted a communist approach. This was in an effort to curb the spread of communism in the Latin America. In the year 1961 the US invaded Congo in 1960 to 1966. It was one of the cold war proxies waged by the US in a bid to DE popularize the Soviet Union’s communism.it resulted in the assassination of the then premier, Patrice Lumumba.

The Vietnamese war is the longest military offensive the US ever had. It was also another reproach to the communism spread and the US lost this war. It was an implementation of the US’s foreign policy. The US government during the cold war era also invaded and ousted democratically elected leaders in Central America (Foner, Voices of Freedom, 2007, 189). This includes the Chilean coup which was orchestrated by the US.

It can be conclude that the main reason for the coups, the offensives and the combats carried out by the US against other nations was in an effort to safeguard the National interest. They were against the communism campaigns waged by the Soviet Union.

2-Transformation of the United States of America from an expansive welfare state to neoliberalism

Neoliberalism is an approach that promotes free trade and encourages a capitalistic approach. The approach allows free movement of goods, resources and enterprises with an aim of maximizing returns and promoting efficiency. Neoliberalism promotes the reduction and shrinkage of the public sector and champions the growth and expansion of the private sector (Foner, Give me liberty, 2006, 323). This methodology was adopted after socialist approaches which promote working in harmony of people in a nation failed and resulted in the crumbling of economies in these nations.

The United States has over the years evolved from an expansive welfare state to fully adopt neoliberalism. This was promoted by a number of factors. The main aim of adopting this approach was to alleviate poverty and promote economic growth in the country. Since attainment of independence, the country had been promoting a socialist economic approach with less concern on the capitalistic approach (Foner, Voices of freedom, 2007, 476). In the few decades that had passed since the 1940s to 1970s the United States had been involved in a series of wars. This had hurt its economy to a large extent.

The period between 1970 and 1980s was characterized by a great social, economic and cultural change in the United States. People in all regions had developed a great affinity for money as they were convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that a good life could only be achieved by the economically stable. In the 1960s this had not been the case. There rose a group of reformers who were mindful of their brother’s welfare in the countries USA had been oppressing (Foner, 2006, 321). The people campaigned vibrantly against the Vietnam War waged by the federal government. Numerous persons especially women also fought hard for the attainment of gender equality. Philanthropists also took numerous measures to bring to an end racism that had been rampant in the United States (Foner, Give me liberty, 2006, 36). The people who championed for social changes to better the living conditions were perceived to be heroes by the then society (History lesson 15).

After 1970 things changed a lot in USA. Many milestones had been reached in the social aspects. It is during this age that equality was embraced. Gender inequality became a thing of the past. Women oppressors had been uprooted out of the community. The campaigners had achieved their goals. Negligible cases of violence against female were heard all over the expansive country (History lesson 15). There was also a great change even in gender balance in employment. The rate of employment among women rose by a great deal compared to other years. They were actively involved in economic activities more than ever. The women also indulged themselves into political matters more than previous years.

During this period, the education sector experienced a torrent in growth. There was a massive sprout of institutions of higher learning all over the country. In the previous decades, few people showed a little interest in education. However, during this period things changed. More and more persons were enrolled in higher learning institutions (Foner, Voices of Freedom, 2007, 213). This also caused a revolution in the labor sector. Many young people enrolled into law and health studies institutions with a sole aim of acquiring skills which would enable them get jobs in the future. As more people were enrolled in learning programs the higher the number of skilled labourers that was available (history lesson 18). More job opportunities were created as a result of expansion of the economy.

The university system during the period underwent a radical transformation changing the basic objectives and ruining the possibilities for social liberation. Financial crises and recession experienced resulted in the dismantling of the former structure of the public universities. In the beginning, the universities were created to improve the social mobility of the United States massive population. In the 1970s and 80s most established higher learning institutions were put in place mostly due to economic reasons (Foner, Give me liberty, 2006, 456). Most of the social objectives that the public universities masterminds wanted to achieve have been eroded (History lesson 15). Most private proprietors who have established learning institutions do not have the interests of the nation as a whole at heart. Most have the aim of enriching themselves.

The governance of the United States evolved over the years changed greatly. Following the defeat of USA in the Vietnam wars a democratic approach to governance was adopted. Immigration into the country rose due to the friendly acts of the congress that allowed external investors to get into the country. This period saw the resignation of a president due to an alleged economic crime committed by him (History lesson 16). The period also saw the rise and fall of racism in the United States. During the previous decades, philanthropists and human rights activists had waged a war against the racism that was seen as an archaic practice (Foner, Voices of Freedom, 2007, 156). Their efforts bore fruits as very few cases of racist oppressors were heard.

It is during this period that the Nixon laws were cancelled. This was a series of economic measures that the United States put in place by the then US president, Richard Nixon. This ushered the era of the freely floating currency unlike the other years. In 1980 when Ronald Reagan ascended to the highest office in the USA, his chief aim was to curb the power of labour, to deregulate industry, resource extraction, and agriculture and to liberate the powers of finance (history lesson 16). The USA experienced a radical change during the ten years to accommodate neoliberalism. Literary everything was done with the aim of making monetary gains.

Neoliberalism therefore, can be said to have brought economic growth of the United States of America. It was a period of renaissance that resulted in economic revolution in the USA. All people were more focused on making economic gains since most social issues has been attended to in the previous years. The period also experienced revival of democracy. There were notable political changes for the better. These changes have up to date ensured political, economic and social prosperity of the United States.

Works cited

Foner, E. voices of freedom: A documentary history (3rd edition). New York: W.W Norton and company. 2007.

Foner, E. Give me liberty: An American history (3rd edition). New York: W.W Norton Company. 2006.