They are moral rules that govern business, how business decision are made and how people are treated. In a business organizations and corporation business ethics help them to promote integrity and good interaction among their employees and gain trust from their stakeholders such as consumers. They use different business ethics approaches in order to make a good decision whenever they have a crisis or are in a dilemma of a rising issue.
In an organization you have to deal with an issue of discrimination. You may find two of the employees in an argument where one of the employees is disabled. The reason for the argument was that the disabled fed the wrong information to a computer .Instead of using the right way to correct him he used his disability as a weakness. As a manager I would choose virtue approach of business ethics that will help me on how to find a solution that will help them to reconcile. Discussing the issue with them will bring out the issues and bring them together thus forgiving each other which will be easier to solve the problem.
When making a decision in utilitarian it is based on what will benefit the majority in the society while in virtue ethics the decision is based on having the virtues like fairness, generosity, self-control, confidence and loyalty. Making a decision using the deontological approach decision are made in the best interest a person.In communitarism decision making is based on opposes individualism and supports community based approach.
Utilitarian approach focuses on the promotion of happiness and duties (Jeremy Bentham) while deontology focuses on the duty roles and respect for people (Immanuel Kant).Virtue approach stresses more of moral development and moral education which is following the moral values and rules in the business (Aristotle).Communitarian stretches on seeking social justice in the community.
Utilitarian ignores the seeking of justice for the minority since it stresses on the majority while deontological usually underestimate the need for happiness and social utility because stresses on duties. Virtue approach depends on the standards of morality in the community while communitarian approach stands for social justice through responsibility where people provide for themselves that will contribute to the community’s ability to fulfill its essential tasks.
A reasoning process behind an ethical issue is identifying ethical issues and being able to think, solve and respond to a problem. In order to come up with a suitable solution there are several steps to be followed which are;
Identify the ethical issue: identify the ethical issue affecting the business organization in order to make the right decision that will favor all the stakeholders in the organization.
Outline the options: this is the process of choosing the best policies that might be followed to respond to the ethical issues so as to make the right decision.
Construct ethical argument; come up with arguments and reasons that are ethically right and can be used to support a conclusion as to what ought to be done ethically.
Evaluate an argument for a decision; evaluate very important consideration in each argument. Come up with the best argument that will help come to conclusion without violating any ethical rule.
Make a decision; decide on the strongest option or argument that will be ethically best way to deal with issue presented .Make a decision from the argument with the strongest ethical reasoning behind it.
Principles and actions of decision making in ethics helps in examining choices and options before making a decision or solving an ethical dilemma. They are;
Universalism, it is a principle that considers the wellbeing and risks of all parties when considering decisions and outcomes in an organization. It involves considering people’s needs and values seriously. When making a decision one should make sure it does not affect the needs and the moral values of an individual.
Justice, this helps in making a decision by being just and fair to all the individuals by treating them equally, making fair decisions and agreements among parties and punishing those who go against the organizational ethical rules. When dealing with a case you have to take action: is it fair, is it right, who get hurt and who has to pay for the consequence.
Utilitarianism, it holds that an action is morally right when it produces the best results for a large number of people. An action is morally if it benefits a large number of people. Basically it favors the majority more than the minority.
Influence of culture on ethical decision making
There are different cultures in the world that impact on the way people make their decision and also individuals are affected by their cultures. Individuals who take part in making a decision also bring up their personal characteristics.
An individual interest can be in a conflict with different culture when making a decision in an organization. This is because a culture can support an issue while another does not. When making a decision cultural differences must be considered in order to be fair and equal regardless of individual’s cultural beliefs. Such beliefs can hinder them from making a proper decision to avoid cultural conflicts in an organization.
Influence of environment on ethical decision making
Lack of rewards; employees love to be motivated hence rewarding them will make them put more efforts in order to achieve goals of an organization. It will also be an encouragement to those who have not been rewarded to reach the goal so as to be appreciated.
Limited competitive pressure; competition from external and internal environment helps the employees to put more effort in decision making to come up with better results compared to others.
Poor career direction; this affects most of the employees in an organization. This happens when new employees are not directed properly in making decision that will hinder them from getting to the right solution to a problem.
Professional leadership; leaders make lack the professional skills that are used to govern an organization in order to bring the best way to make the right decision thus will hinder the employees from getting to the right decision.
Personal decision based on ethical decision making
A good personal decision should be able to demonstrate values like trust, respect, fairness, integrity, caring, responsibilities and good citizenship which will help in generating and providing foundation for a decision.
Business ethics helps to promote integrity among the employees and employers to gain trust from their stakeholders. Ethics create a conducive working environment that helps achieve goals set for a period of time in an organization. Ethics programs helps in promoting moral conduct.