The Concept of Worship, Prayer, & Rituals In The Islamic Religion

The Concept of Worship, Prayer, & Rituals In The Islamic Religion


The Rituals of the Islamic Religion

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The Concept of Worship, Prayer, & Rituals In The Islamic Religion

The religion Muslim is important to understand through a business perspective. A brief summary of the history of Islam will be discussed as well as explaining the important elements for Muslims, which included but is not limited to the Qur’an, The Five Pillars and Ramadan. The different types of branches of Islam include Sunni, Shiite, and Sufi in which all have significant differences and similarities. The importance on the study of Muslim is important due to the world revolving around religion, however news media proves to escalate the problems when in fact Muslims are traditional humans who take their religion serious in both heart and in their beliefs, such as believing in Allah (God) and Muhammad.

When examining the concept of worship and prayer in the Islam, it is noticed that the religion takes the concept of worshipping and praising a higher power very passionately, and this is a very important aspect of an individual’s faith. It has always been the central practice of bringing all faiths together and serving as a common ground for all believers since the beginning of time. No matter what sect of a religion you believe in and practise, worship is something that stays evident and consistent throughout all sects of a religion. The Islamic faith emphasizes both public and private forms of worship. For believers, they each serve a different function, and each has a different meaning and purpose behind it. Private worshipping across these different faiths share many similarities that will be discussed later on, as well as examining public worshipping across these different faiths, while looking at the many similarities as well as differences that they all share together.

Ibada an umbrella term for religious devotion (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 191). Muslim worship is referred to as “ibada,” or service to God, and involves praising and confessing sins to one’s lord. Salat is the Muslim term for prayer, and it is one of Islam’s pillars. Islam requires that certain actions be taken before a Muslim can pray their daily salat. Before a person prays, they must maintain and demonstrate their purity. Purity is extremely important in Islam with a famous hadith quoting “Purity is half the faith” (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 191). Islamic prayer requires that a person attain this “purity” that the religion so reveres. Muslims must perform an action prior to their salat called “wudu”. Water is required when performing wudu, and if water isn’t accessible one must perform an action called “tayammum”. Tayammum substitutes water with elements of the earth such as sand or clay to purify oneself. Showing the multiple ways Muslims can purify themselves before prayer represents how important purity is when it comes to worship in Islam. Now that we have discussed what has to be done before worship, it is time to discuss how Muslims worship privately and publicly.

The history of the Muslim religion started with a vision that Muhammad had when he was in a cave by Allah. Allah is the God to the Muslim Religion. As Muhammad was born in the town Mecca many events lead to the forming of the religion. Mecca had fame due to having black meteorites representing to the people as falling rocks from Heaven. The people in Mecca built a shrine over the black Meteorites known as Kabah. The Kabah is a very sacred area to the Muslim religion as it is Private to the world. In accordance to Molloy, “Islamic religion basically translates to “submission” and “giving in fully” implying total submission to God’s will”, (Ch.10). The Islamic religion is a serious deal especially when talking about Muhammad and Allah. The Qur’an is represented as a bible to the Muslim Religion. The stepping­stones of the religion and history as well as Religion laws are set in the Qur’an. Although Islam prohibits images artist have to record everything in sacred words to be able to describe the writings.

Each and every day, Muslims are obligated to fulfill five prayers in praise of Allah (SWT)., when it comes to private prayer in Islam. These five prayers, which focus on one’s relationship with God, can be done in private throughout the day. These five daily prayers, on the other hand, can be said in public. When it is time to pray, “a chanted call to prayer in Arabic called adhan” (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 192) is performed to alert everyone that it is time to stop and pray. Private worship in Islam is typically performed at home and can include acts of worship such as reading the Quran, praying, and reciting other holy scriptures (Bellah & Rappaport, 1999). Fasting is another form of worship in Islam, and Muslims must fast for one month during the Islamic month of Ramadan. Fasting is another form of private worship that is valued in Islam.

Now that we’ve covered the private aspect of worship, let’s turn our attention to the public aspect of prayer in Islam. As long as the person is praying to the Ka’aba shrine in Mecca, public and private worship can take place anywhere. Private prayers are typically performed alone, whereas public prayers are typically performed in groups. When a group prays publicly together, “this requires a leader in the congregation who stands at the front and sets the tone with his or her voice and body language” (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 193). Furthermore, for the salat to be acceptable in public group prayers, the prayer leader must be a male. Finally, in order for the prayer to be accepted in both private and public worship in Islam, the individual(s) must perform a “niyya, meaning intention” right before the prayer begins (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p.193). The “mosque” is Islam’s holiest place of worship, and it is where the majority of public worship takes place. Friday prayers are an important part of public worship in Islam, and it is recommended that all Muslims go to the mosque to worship God as a group on Friday. As part of public worship in Islam, sermons and lectures are also held inside the mosque.

The Qur’an is a written symbol that represents Islam’s people’s religion. Praying, fasting, and living according to the Qur’an on a daily basis are among the rituals that take place. According to Molloy, “the Qur’an has 114 chapters, or Suras” (Ch.10). Each Sura or chapter of the Qur’an is given a name, such as the elephant, thunder, Light, and moon. The Suras are arranged in length order, shortest to longest. The final chapters of the Qur’an are brief. Because the order in the Qur’an is reversed, the chapters, like those of other religions, are not always in chronological order. Abu Bakr caliphate, according to Hooker, is where the Qur’an was written down after Muhammad’s death. Bakr was important to Muhammad.

Bakr was recognized as the first Caliph. After Muhammad’s death, the Caliph is in charge. Although the Qur’an is a guide for all Muslims and the people of Islam, the Five Pillars are also important in guiding the religion.

The five Pillars are, according to Molloy, ” Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj), Fasting During Ramadan (Sawm), Charity to the Poor (Zakat), Prayer (Salat), and Creed (Shahadah).” (Ch.10). An Islamic creed, or shahadah, is depicted as a whisper into a newborn’s ears. Muslims believe there is only one god, Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. The message is brief, but it contains foundational words. Salat is another piller in which devout Muslims pray five times a day, at dawn, noon, midafternoon, sunset, and night. Zakat is a religious donation in the form of a fixed monetary amount. The estimated percentage is 2.5 percent of total money generated. Sawm represents religious fasting in order to establish religious discipline and respect. The Hajj is a symbol of people attempting to find Mecca at least once in their lives. Another important Islamic topic is Ramadan. Ramadan is a month of fasting during which no food, drink, or sexual activity is permitted. This long tradition, which lasts 29­30 days, is known all over the world. An opportunity for spiritual reflection and growth, as well as service to others and time spent with loved ones, are all part of a Muslim holiday season. As Muslims, we strive to grow spiritually and become closer to Allah and those we love. Between sunrise and sunset, they abstain from daily luxuries like smoking, drinking, and having sex with others. Additionally, In Ramadan, Muslims devote themselves to spiritual reflection and unity by reciting the Quran, praying, fasting, doing charitable acts, and spending time with loved ones while avoiding lying, gossiping and fighting.

Islamic prayer is either an act of supplication or an act of worship. Because supplication is among the most essential aspects. Almighty Allah’s glory is its primary objective. Maintaining contact with one’s religious beliefs is the most critical duty of a Muslim. Every Muslim adult, male or female, is required to pray on a personal level. In order to cultivate the habit of prayer in a child, it is expected that he begin at the age of seven. The punishment will be severe if he refuses to do it by the age of 10. Additional to this, they pray to receive a message from God or Allah in addition to the other requirements

Muslim culture or spirituality places a high value on fasting and prayer ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s13668-018-0233-2″,”ISSN”:”21613311″,”abstract”:”Purpose of review: Since the early development of human societies, religious beliefs, and practices has been integral to their identity, culture, and social structure, traditions are influenced by the area, era, and culture wherein they developed. Some religions offer advice on behavioral and diet modifications as strategies to fortify the body, purify the spirit, and elevate consciousness. This review is an attempt to compare different practices, describe the health benefits and risks of fasting, and reconcile these age-old recommendations with practical modern life. Recent findings: Research to clarify and quantify the impact of these dietary modifications is challenging due to the variability in recommendations among various religions and in day-to-day practices. Summary: Most religions share common goals of well-being, body-mind integration, and spiritual attainment. Historically, the transformational power of fasting periods has been appreciated, but there is still much to discover about the underlying beneficial physiologic mechanisms of fasting in preventing and treating metabolic diseases.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Venegas-Borsellino”,”given”:”Carla”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sonikpreet”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Martindale”,”given”:”Robert G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Current Nutrition Reports”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2018″,”9″,”1″]]},”page”:”131-138″,”publisher”:”Current Science Inc.”,”title”:”From Religion to Secularism: the Benefits of Fasting”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”7″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018). Fasting is yet another distinguishing feature of Islam in terms of morality and spirituality. Basically, fasting means abstaining from all food, drink, sex, and tobacco use for an entire day. Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, mandates that all of this must be completed between the hours of sunrise and sunset. It is the goal of this pillar to help Muslims better understand what it means to have a positive attitude toward humanity ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/1369118X.2017.1340970″,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johnson”,”given”:”Mark R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Information, Communication & Society”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”12″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2017″,”12″,”2″]]},”page”:”1844-1847″,”publisher”:”Informa UK Limited”,”title”:”Gods in and of the machine: morality, divination and meaning in digital religion and games”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Johnson, 2017). Salah, the final of Islam’s five pillars of prayer, requires that all Muslims walk in prayer in a regular and orderly fashion every day. Observed and performed at predetermined times five times a day, it is a physical, mental and spiritual expression of worship. During this time, they are required to pray facing Mecca. Muslims must first stand, bow, abject themselves, and then sit on the ground, effectively ending the prayer (2013, April 19). Islamic prayer involves reciting or reading special verses and prayers at various points in the year. For the most part, salah, or prayer, serves as a means of communication with God and a way to keep God in mind. Muslim lives are influenced greatly by this Pillar because it defines their relationship and allegiance to Allah, making it a high priority for Muslims.

It’s an excellent time to focus on one’s religious beliefs and grow closer to Allah, while also developing patience and compassion ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5144/0256-4947.2002.186″,”ISSN”:”02564947″,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Azizi”,”given”:”Fereidoun”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Annals of Saudi Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3-4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2002″]]},”page”:”186-191″,”publisher”:”King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre”,”title”:”Research in Islamic fasting and health”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”22″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Azizi, 2002)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Azizi, 2002)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Azizi, 2002). It’s about taking care of both your mind and body. First and foremost, the qualities adopted during fasting are the qualities we should exhibit as Muslims. The month serves as a constant reminder of how we should behave in general, not just during this month. The month reminds us to strive for purity and discipline ourselves to perform these acts in order to secure it in our daily lives, becoming accustomed to purifying our beliefs as well as our bodies, minds, and souls ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISSN”:”2345-2587″,”abstract”:”Introduction: Nearly one billion adult Muslims across the world refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking from dawn until dusk during the holy month of Ramadan. The duration of Islamic fasting varies depending on the coinciding season and geographical location. The present study aimed to review the health benefits of Islamic fasting. Methods: This review was carried out after searching in several databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Medline, PMC, Google Scholar and also the related articles. Results: Islamic fasting is along with many health benefits such as the reduced risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and cancer. Although, some health problems have mentioned during Islamic fasting like dehydration, headaches. Conclusion: According to the results of this review, religious fasting positively influences the body weight and lipid and glucose levels, while exerting antioxidative effects, increasing longevity, and improving the renal and immune function. The health benefits of fasting could be reinforced through the balanced intake of various nutrients, such as dairy products, fruits and vegetables, meat and fish, cereals, and grains, as well as beverages such as water and milk, during Ramadan.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Massoud”,”given”:”Ramona”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sharifan”,”given”:”Anoosheh”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Massoud”,”given”:”Armita”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal of Nutrition,Fasting and Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2020″]]},”page”:”17-22″,”title”:”Religious Fasting; the Purgation of Soul and Body”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”8″},”uris”:[“”]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Massoud et al., 2020)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Massoud et al., 2020)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Massoud et al., 2020)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Massoud et al., 2020). Increasing our closeness to Allah SWT and instilling fear of our Lord – it is critical to remember who our Creator is, why we were placed here, and what our goals are in this material world; to remember that this world is merely a stop-gap (albeit a very brief one) on our journey to the Hereafter. We should strive for taqwa and to be as close to Allah as possible.

Connecting with our Lord is critical for remembering why we’re here in the first place; otherwise, we’ll get lost in this realm, which is exactly what we’re here to avoid. In our materialistic world, we frequently fail to recognize how dependent we are on Allah SWT. As a result, the practice of remaining humble at all times; a simple act such as fasting simply demonstrates how dependent we are on our Lord and His creation ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”The main purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical justification about how important the fasting is for the humankind. In fact, it is a theoretical paper which motivates regarding the issues of benefits that we can achieve from fasting. The results of the paper disclose some significant reasons that fasting can be considered as a well being program to acquire patience, strong will, righteousness, sincerity, good manners, discipline, better sense of prestige, better dieting habits, and many other physical and spiritual benefits of human being in order to establish peace, prosperity and sustainable development of the society. However, the limitation of the paper was it could not consider any numerical examples in favour of the main message of the study because of lack of data availability. Nevertheless, the paper shows its originality in substance and makes a unique contribution to the literature on one of the most important pillars of Islam”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hossain”,”given”:”Mohammad Zakir”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2012″]]},”page”:”184-190″,”title”:”Fasting in Islam : Its Excellence, Benefits and Use for Sustainable Development of the Society”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”3″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hossain, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hossain, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hossain, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Hossain, 2012). Ramadan reminds us to be humble and selfless while also having empathy and compassion for others.

Ramadan, like many other Islamic attributes, serves to remind us that we are all equal in this world, regardless of skin color, race, religion, gender, or social status. We’ll all end up in the same place, wearing the same clothes, carrying only our amaal and leaving behind all worldly possessions. That is when we will truly understand how those we helped in this world contribute to what we bring into the next.

Despite the fact that Islamic ideals are generally peaceful, many Muslims are vehemently opposed to another religion coexisting with Islam and feel compelled to kill the infidel. This suggests that this group is going through a difficult time. Because of this conflict, it may be easier for this group to connect with Muslims by bridging the gap and participating in some of their religious and cultural traditions ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/1387619″,”ISSN”:”00218294″,”abstract”:”This book argues that religion can and must be reconciled with science. Combining adaptive and cognitive approaches, it is a comprehensive analysis of religion’s evolutionary significance, and its inextricable interdependence with language. It is also a detailed study of religion’s main component, ritual, which constructs the conceptions that we take to be religious and therefore central in the making of humanity’s adaptation. The text amounts to a manual for effective ritual, illustrated by examples drawn from a range of disciplines.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bellah”,”given”:”Robert N.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rappaport”,”given”:”Roy A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“1999″]]},”page”:”569″,”title”:”Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”38″},”uris”:[“”]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999). Almsgiving is a central tenet of Islam, and I believe that connecting with it would be beneficial for these people ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.4172/2161-0711.1000178″,”abstract”:”A review of research articles on Ramadan fasting indicates that fasting can serve as an excellent research model for Psycho-social behaviour and health studies. The purpose of fasting for Muslims is to learn self-restraint from indulgence in everyday pleasures, for self-discipline, to develop God-consciousness, to develop self-control, to purify the body, and to empathize with the poor and hungry. Muslims describe a feeling of inner peace and tranquillity. This involves restraining anger, doing good deeds, exercising personal discipline, and preparing one to serve as a good Muslim and a good person. One of the greatest advantages of fasting is that its true observance inculcates in a person a habit of speaking the truth. Fasting is a powerful therapeutic process that can help people recover from mild to severe health conditions.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”S”,”given”:”Ahmad”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”K”,”given”:”Goel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”KA”,”given”:”Maroof”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”P”,”given”:”Goel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”09″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2012″]]},”title”:”Psycho-Social Behaviour and Health Benefits of Islamic Fasting During the Month of Ramadan”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”02″},”uris”:[“”]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(S et al., 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(S et al., 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(S et al., 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(S et al., 2012). For this reason, I believe Christians and Muslims can find a common ground on giving to the poor in the Bible, which will make it easier to develop connections and spread the message.

A Shiite is someone who believes in Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law. The Shiite sect was founded by a political movement that supported Ali. A Sunni is a follower of Muhammad’s way of life. Sunnis account for 80 percent of Muslims. Shitte are distinguished by their pure white or pure black headdress. Sunnis shave their mustaches and wear a smaller headband. Sufis and scholars regard a Sufi as Islam’s inner, mystical, or psycho­spiritual dimension. Sufis interpreted various Qur’anic concepts as mystical interpretations. Every type of follower has their own set of beliefs. Despite the fact that all of the movements spawned political movements, being able to identify each individual is critical because they do not get along.


In the Islamic religion, the passage of time is significant. Muslims are born with a strong sense of discipline, despite the fact that traditions are common among Muslims. The Qur’an and the Five Pillars are inextricably linked. The Qur’an is Islam’s fundamental prayer, law, and way of life. Ramadan is significant in business because it is necessary to respect a worker’s or business investor’s religion. It is essential to pray five times a day and to respect others. Sports, like many other aspects of life, teach restraint and discipline. Self-discipline practice allows you to separate from certain desires as well as constrain and detach yourself from your needs, allowing you to achieve true independence. Without the unnecessary burdens and indulgent wants and needs of daily life, such as status, material, money, stress, and possessions, one can achieve true contentment, freedom, and, most importantly, simplicity. Fasting helps to sharpen and direct the mind’s focus, allowing us to remember the reason for our existence and restore balance in our lives.


ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Azizi, F. (2002). Research in Islamic fasting and health. In Annals of Saudi Medicine (Vol. 22, Issues 3–4, pp. 186–191). King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

Bellah, R. N., & Rappaport, R. A. (1999). Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38(4), 569.

Hossain, M. Z. (2012). Fasting in Islam : Its Excellence, Benefits and Use for Sustainable Development of the Society. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 3(3), 184–190.

Johnson, M. R. (2017). Gods in and of the machine: morality, divination and meaning in digital religion and games. Information, Communication & Society, 20(12), 1844–1847.

Massoud, R., Sharifan, A., & Massoud, A. (2020). Religious Fasting; the Purgation of Soul and Body. Journal of Nutrition,Fasting and Health, 8(1), 17–22.

S, A., K, G., KA, M., & P, G. (2012). Psycho-Social Behaviour and Health Benefits of Islamic Fasting During the Month of Ramadan. Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, 02(09).

Venegas-Borsellino, C., Sonikpreet, & Martindale, R. G. (2018). From Religion to Secularism: the Benefits of Fasting. In Current Nutrition Reports (Vol. 7, Issue 3, pp. 131–138). Current Science Inc.