Texas History 1822-19000
There are several major historical events that took place between 1822-1900 that would shape Texas and would help us understand how Texas was annexed from Mexico and became part of the US. Moses Austin had negotiated for land for 300 families in the Mexican Province in 1820. Antonio Martinez had agreed to give Moses Austin land to settle along the Colorado river but before the families could settle Moses Austin Died and his son took over. In 1824, Stephen Austin and the 300 families settled in Brazos and Colorado. The piece of land that they settled in however was not what they had been promised. Mexico had just won their independence from Spaniards and thus there was an interim government in place that was overseeing all the operations.
In 1824 when Mexico won the war, they established rules on people settling in the colony including need to be Catholics. They joined Texas and Coahuila and together they created a unified Mexican state “Coahuila y Texas”. Mexico welcomed settlers including in San Antonio Texas. There was vast huge of lands that most settlers wanted as it was best for livestock keeping. All the settlers needed to do was pay $30 as down payment and then they would not pay takes for 10 years, this deal was so good and it attracted settlers. Soon conflict begun on Texans and Mexicans with settlers denying their Mexican identity. Most settlers did not want to identify themselves as Mexicans and referred to themselves as Texans. Austin settlers had also brought slaves with them although Mexico had prohibited slaves. There was no allegiance to the nation and soon the Mexican government begun seeing that they would lose the territory. Around 1828, they begun encouraging Mexicans to move into the area. By 1830, Mexico banned the immigration of U.S into but encouraged immigration from Mexico and other European countries. The laws also became stricter especially on slave ownership and there was an increase in military presence a move that made most Texans angry.
In 1833, there was a revolution led by Antonio de Santa Anna Lopez and her overthrew the then President Bustamante. The Texans were okay with Santa Anna leading as he had shown support for the 1824 Constitution that had more similarities with the US constitution. Immediately while in power, he nullified the 1824 constitution and supported a more centralized government and he no longer supported Texas self-rule. In 1833 in response to the nullification 56 delegates from Texas drafted a resolution that wanted the government to change some of its laws. They also wanted Mexico to allow immigration from the United States and they wanted to also be exempted from the anti-slavery laws. The proposals were presented by Stephen Austin and James Miller but all did not go well as Austin was imprisoned on the charge that he incited insurrection. Most of 1830 laws were however repealed but Texas was not granted statehood. With immigration now open thousands of Americans moved to Texas,
In 1835, the Texas revolution begun. It was a rebellion between the colonist who came from the United States (Anglo-Americans) and the Tejanos (Mexican Texans). The Texans thought that the Americans were trying to prevent them from annexation. Notions such as culture and ethnicity were among the reasons that stirred up the rebellion has been supported by some authors. Ethnic reasons to some point may have contributed to the revolt majority of Mexican Texans were Catholic, and thus when the Anglo-Americans flocked into Texas, they were not allowed to have a protestant meeting but rather were to be Catholic. They also differed on slavery, in 1829 the Mexicans banned slavery, and the Anglo-Americans were shocked. The Americans also did not like the fact that the Mexican Texans did not have a jury system but the decisions were made by alcades, and the Mexicans too thought the Anglo Americans were racist. Some Texan leaders believed that Americans would invade their fertile areas especially the northern boundaries as they viewed themselves as superior. Some Tejanos and Anglo Americans had similar ideas. Both of these two groups agreed that there was a need for a better justice system and that Texas should separate from Coahuila. Anglo Americans would however eventually have outnumbered the Tejanos and were unhappy when the centralist took power. This war divided the Mexicans right in the middle. Some members fought for Americans others decided to be loyal to the state.
In 1836, March 1st Delegates held a convention at Washington-on-the-Brazos and drafted Texas declaration of independence that was adopted on March 2. This took place just a month after Santa Anna had invaded Texas to try and reclaim it to make sure they do not annex. March 6th 1836, Santa Anna and his men attacked Alamo under William B and Texas rebels tried to fight the Mexican Army but eventually Mexicans triumphed. Defenders of Alamo were killed including David Crockett a U.S. Congressman. Colonel James Fannin who was in charge of fort Goliad was also attacked by Santa Anna’s men and fought in Battle of Coleto and they too suffered same fate as Alamo. General Houston would later lead an army and attacked a camp with Santa Anna’s army where they triumphed as Santa Anna was captured and now Texas became a republic. During the rebellion, there were Mexican federalist who supported the Anglo American cause. There was the emergence of war patty which was against the Santa Anna regime. Mexicans and Anglo Americans hand found so much in politics that they could agree on.
September 1836, republic of Texas carried out their first election and Sam Houston was elected as their first president deputized by Mirabeau Lamar. Stephen Austin was appointed secretary of state. In 1839, the lone star flag was adopted as official flag for Texas. In 1846, February 19th Texas under the rue of President James Polk was annexed to the United States. President Polk tried defining borders between Texas and Mexico in Rio Grande but Mexico did not agree and troops were placed to protect the border. A war begun in May 1846 and this was officially seen as a war between U.S and Mexico and was declared by congress in May 13th. The war was brought to an end after Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty was signed and it established boundaries. The treaty also included acquisition of Mexico northern territory; California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona, as well as parts of Wyoming and Colorado for $15 million.
Between 1860-1865 Texas joined Confederacy. This was also the period of the civil war. Most Texans believed in slave ownership and election of Abraham Lincoln who was a republican was seen as a threat to slavery thus Southern States seceded including Texas as their state Legislature voted in favor of Secession. Slavery ended in Texas in June 19th 1865. Texas was readmitted back to United States in March 30 1870. In 1875, the Texas Constitution was revised and it shortened terms for elected officials and also lowered their salary this was in response to the reconstruction era. The constitution also created University of Texas and one million acres of land was set aside for Permanent University Fund. In 1880, Texas officials decided to build a new capitol building as the old one was now considered small and in 1881 the old building burned down. The new capitol was completed in 1888 and Goddess of Liberty was placed at the top of the dome. Texas was also important for the women’s suffrage movement. Texas Equal Rights Association was created and this became first statewide women’s movement. The main aim of the organization was advocating for equal voting rights for the women as well as being allowed to run for offices and serve in juries.
“Texas History Timeline.” Texas State History Museum, www.thestoryoftexas.com/discover/texas-history-timeline.