Student’s Name




Science is the study of the natural world and how it operates or works and this is mainly done through observation of natural occurrence or experimentation to simulate natural process. What is science?

Non renewable resources have been proven to produce large amount of energy and are limited in supply. They are irreplaceable and scientists have proven that by the year 2080 oil would be limited and since it takes a long time to replace there would be an energy crisis. The case study of Oil in the Middle East is a good example of how human effort has helped us understand the natural world through science. Oil exploration has been a source of revenue for Middle Eastern nations and has proven to be reliable source of energy. Science has proven that oil is composed of two maters carbon and hydrogen based molecules. During decomposition oil leaves hydrogen and carbon. Heat and pressure from earth transform them into oil. In Middle East it is believed that the Tethys Sea submerged large portion of the Middle East and sediments became compressed and transformed into limestone where deposits of organic matter became crude oil (Stewart, 1995).

Oil exploration is an income earning activity, oil produced is exported to other nations especially united States .U.S imports 60% of their oil from other nations and only produce around 30%.The middle eastern countries rely on this to trade to sustain the economy .Although oil is regarded as an income generating activity it is estimated that in 200 years from now it would be difficult to retrieve oil since the middle eastern countries have over exploited the resource. Oil gives the Middle East influence on foreign policy decisions because oil is petroleum and Middle East controls majority shares (Shwadran, 1977).

Science explains that through burning of oil as a non renewable energy source to generate energy a large deposit of carbon dioxide is emitted. Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes the green house effect. This increases the temperature of earth surface and lowers the atmosphere warmer than usual. Middle East countries are unbearable to leave in with temperatures of over 45 degrees Celsius. Oil exploration also has a major disadvantage in terms of environmental damages .Large tacks of land are left barren, they cannot be exploited anymore and agricultural activities cannot take place. A good example is the Exxon Valdez in Alaska, where crude oil spilled on Prince William Sound .This affected the environment tremendously and growth of vegetation.

Non Renewable resource have been overexploited and due to decreasing supply and increasing demand other sources of energy should be used. Renewable energy sources such as Solar, wind and geothermal would be efficient especially in the Middle Eastern nations where solar and wind are of great velocity. If we took the example of the diesel engine that used peanut oil to run on it would reduce amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the air. Science has proven that with the over reliance on non renewable resources such as, fossil fuels and coal we are destroying the environment that gave us the resource.

Advantages of oil energy outweigh the disadvantages but on this are certain cheap will always be expensive no matter the understanding of the term. Take an example of daily needs such as gas fueling of vehicles and electric generators rely on oil energy but the major disadvantage is the overreliance on them. Increase in demand cannot be fully satisfied by supply in the market. This effect increases the price of petroleum and this will also affect a nation’s economy. When US terminated its oil imports from Iran it did not affect the Iranian exports it just relinquished priorities this is a political issue that will affect most super powers.


Shwadran, B. (1977). Middle East oil: Issues and problems. (pp. 52-76). Transaction Publishers

Stewart et al (1995) Soil management and greenhouse effect volume 6 of advances in soil science (Vol. 6, p. 12) Florida: CRC Press.