Criticism of the Rational Model
Restricted view of Human Reason.
The rational model specifically confines to the human reason view. Ramos (1981) in his book, “the new science of organizations” gives a connection between growth of market economy and modern concept of instrumental rationality. The rational model leaves little space for self actualization and mostly when it happens it becomes as a surprise. Politics administration dichotomy links to rational model’s distinction of means and ends. The rational model advocates for participation in societies when it comes to societal values and decisions although rationale sometimes ignores the human life aspects of intuition and emotion. Also, the model tends not to focus on the moral context within which an action can occur.
Incomplete understanding of knowledge acquisition.
The rational model assumes a single way in which absolute knowledge is accessed and that is through spontaneous application of positive scientific methods to technical and social relations in an organization. A positive science model has basic tenets that must be thoroughly applied. The tenets guide an individual to come with science oriented solutions. However, limitations of positive science model should be as well taken into consideration. A limitation such as the fact that human behaviour varies due to new information, human subjective experiences, and the scientist own objectivity in the areas of study.
Inadequate link between theory and practice.
The gap between academics and practitioners, theory and practise can be explained as ways individuals want their experiences to be important in influencing disciplines and giving explanations on phenomenon. However, the gap between theory and practice widens in an organizations in the sense that sometimes individuals consider one way of acquiring knowledge, that is through jargon which leads to communication breakdown and not appreciating other people’s way of understanding knowledge. The rationale model seeks to objectify human experience and at the same time it comments on experience therefore, it deviates from its course.
The Inspiration of the Public Service and the Restoration of Democratic Citizenship
The development of the official race and ethnicity groups is nothing ‘natural’ according to Yanow but an American contemporary race ethnic discourse. Although, this is also a governmental policy that seeks to identify and give a sense of identification to groups. The Queer theory that originates from gender and feminism studies builds itself from the experiences of people who break societal norms.
The Queer theory rejects the advances of ‘normality’ that may have been in existence in the society. Denhardt and Denhardt (2007) in their ‘new public services note that it draws its inspiration from; alternative approaches to management and organizational design and democratic political theory. The latter; democratic political theory is mostly used model. Whereby, the government and the citizens have roles to play. For instance the government provides for the rights and enforces these rights in order to protect its citizens and the citizens in return exercise their rights through voting to choose leaders that meet their personal ideologies and respect other people’s rights. An individual in this case is given the rights to act on behalf on the rest of the society through the individual self interests to the general good interests of the citizens. This kind of arrangement is referred to new public management.
Moreover, democratic citizenship allows for the idea that an individual is more active in self government. Citizens should shelf personal interests and pursue general and public interests that transcend them. This obviously requires much more from an individual therefore; individuals should have knowledge on public affairs and a sense of belonging. For citizens to share self rule they should have a civic virtues that they as a community embrace. To restore a new public service and democratic order there should be systems in place that prepare individuals at basic levels in order for them to have stronger political systems for the people.