Management Information System Reflection

Management Information System Reflection



Management Information System Reflection


Kolb learning cycle is an educational tool developed to increase the individual’s process of learning and provide an exciting experience in learning. It also provides a tool for developing experiential learning and each person’s learning styles (Kolb, 1984). Therefore the theory is beneficial to improving learning experiences in the learning environment. The theory has been developed over time to improve its experience and work to enhancing student understanding. It is a theory that involves a process with four stages. First, a real experience, where a piece of concrete evidence has to be kept to help in future understanding of the learning process. Second is the reflective observation, where one reflects on the experience throughout the learning process. This helps to internalize the learned concepts. The third step is the abstract conceptualization, where analysis is done connecting experiences to the new knowledge. Lastly is the active experimentation where a plan is developed on how to apply the knowledge. Kolb learning theory is used to analyze the learning experience based on a learning journal created for experience throughout the trimester.

Reflective Observation

The learning experience throughout the trimester involved lots of knowledge from the understanding of data and how useful it is to an entity. The first theme that developed was of development of a system. A system requires data collected for the various sources, which are then analyzed to create a flow of information. Data is the driving force in the development of a system. It affects all the decisions made hence used in the development of the system. The data defines the process by which the system will work and the functions it would perform in an institution. Companies compete in finding data that help in the development of systems to improve their performance.

The business organization theme also emerges from the SAP, which is a technique for an enterprise resource planning system (Rainer & Prnce, 2019). The organization of business involves the operations in various sectors and departments of a business to attain a common objective. The SAP system coordinates various activities in the business, including the accounting system, asset management, human resource, and controlling of resources, which is beneficial in the organization of the business (SAP, n.d). The system offers a solution to the enterprise resource planning of business due to its capability of managing departments with different duties at the same time. It focuses on all functions of the business, including the mobility of resources, information, and products from an individual to another.

Also, there is business process management through the porter’s value chain concept. It shows how the activities of a company are coordinated and the relationship between the primary functions of a business as well as the support activities (Rainer & Prince, 2019). The primary activities include inbound and outbound logistics, operations, customer service, and marketing and sales. The primary activities are supported by administrative and human resource management, procurement, as well as the product and technology development activities. The chain helps in strategizing the business process of any firm, making it easier to maximize production and attain more profits. Also, business management becomes aware of the important activities of a business and effectively allocate resources for each activity.

Besides, the IT alignment shows the theme of the social impact of alignment in a business (Charoensuk et al., 2014). IT alignment section identifies the causes that may cause the failure of IT alignment. These include Differing IT objectives between the IT management and business managers, lack of communication, and ignoring other individuals with expertise. IT alignment is an essential factor in the success of a business. Solutions to these factors are required to ensure the departments are informed, communicate, and are all focused on achieving a set goal.

Abstract Conceptualization

An information system is a process by which tools and data are coordinated to create a system that works for a specific company. Innovative firms have high competition in the industry as each tries to find ways to have a competitive advantage over other firms (Camisón-Haba et al., 2019). Since data is the essential input in innovation systems, there will always be a rise in search of data that would help improve the systems of the farm. However, the data that firms look for ay be alike if the human effort to develop systems are alike. Therefore, many companies will be having the same kinds of systems, which then would put them into one level. This means the competition for data will keep continuing as each company attempt to improve their systems to be better than that of a competitor.

Also, business organization techniques are based on various theories and concepts that have existed for a long time. The developments of technology may fail to align itself with the applied theory; hence a firm’s business organization may be affected. This is because of the objectives of innovative firms to apply recent technologies in its operations and, at the same time, be based on a concept that makes it firm to justify its activities. However, the application of IT systems eases operations as most of the work done by humans is now accomplished using information systems. I had a thought that this may be a challenge for the employment sectors as the operations are taken over by the systems. Only a few members will be required to run the systems, to produce products, and perform operations of the company successfully.

However, I was surprised by how simple a computer may be hacked just with a simple phone call. This showed that our computers are not safe, and hacking could occur anytime, making us lose important information to the public. The challenge is in finding ways to prevent such activities from happening to us. A system is created through a unique process by every company, which should make it difficult to hack. Nevertheless, a hacker still accesses another person’s computer within a very short period, which is astonishing. Therefore, it is appropriate for firms to find ways to ensure their data is safe, and the hackers do not have an easy platform for hacking. Also, training of employees and informing them of such activities may help in preventing them from being coerced into performing actions they are not sure of. It is best to first clarify or ask before agreeing to an instruction.

Active experimentation- New action

The knowledge of information systems is helpful, especially during this technological era, where any businesses apply information systems in their operations. Developing professions also require information systems that work for them in ensuring its operations are independent and apply well for every department. Therefore, training to the personnel of the companies will be of help in informing them about the roles they are required to play in their responsibility, especially where the information systems are applied. Managing the system is also important and requires expertise to safeguard the information stored in the system.

Also, with the basic understanding of information systems, I plan to increase my knowledge of the process of application of data to create a system. This includes a specific system that works for a specific industry. Hence, I will need to know the type of data to be collected, the procedure for analysis, and the process required in the development of an information system. Also, hacking has become one of the biggest challenges faced by companies using information systems. Therefore, I plan to research the techniques used by hackers to access other people’s systems. Thorough knowledge of the procedures, I will be able to find ways to prevent such actions from affecting companies. This is because most companies are losing their data and important company information to hackers and are not able to acquire them back; hence becomes a challenge for companies to operate effectively.


A management information system is a tool that helps in organizing the business, enhance business process management, help in system development, and also the alignment of objectives of a company. It is a process that requires data to process since it is the driving force of the systems. Companies collect data from various sources, which becomes helpful in management through the creation of systems that fit their strategies. In a business organization, the porter value chain is essential in basing the activities of the company. It states the primary activities that need the support of the management to be accomplished. ERP process also supports the operation of the information system in that when the process is well developed, the information system activities work better in achieving the objectives of a firm. However, the challenge that affects the system is hacking. It negatively impacts the operations of a company by providing access to the company’s information. Proper training and knowledge of the process of hacking to employees may help in preventing the problem in the future.

Appendix- Learning JournalDate Learning Activity Impact Evidence

Module 1.1 Pew Research Center The quiz was an introduction to the topic and to open my mind on the come of the concepts of information systems. From the pew research center feedback, I learned what cookies are. Most of the time, I find a notification to accept cookies but did not know what it does. I am now aware that it tracks visits and activities on the websites as one visits them. Also, to me, there was no difference between the https and Http. I thought they just work the same. However, from the center, I understood that in encryption of data, they differ. The quiz was an essential activity, very informative, and a good foundation for the MIS 500 subject. It has prepared the mind to think of information systems and how various aspects help improve experiences.

Module 1.2 Data as power driver of successful innovation An understanding that data is the driving force of an information system in a company and is the basis of any innovation made in an entity. The developments of machine learning tools influence the strategies of a company. Technological innovation requires data as an essential resource in developing creative ideas. For information innovation to occur, data is the raw material that has to be fed into a system of machine learning tools hence makes the data-driven innovation work. The data is what constitutes the directions of use and stipulates how a system innovated is going to work. Therefore, any company wishing to innovate have to find access to data. This creates a competitive environment for data search in the business environment. Innovative companies switching from human insight to data-driven machine learning will do work faster and lead to many innovations. However, the development will affect human effort since machines will be used in the processing of data. Also, any developments that occur in technology, the companies will have to shift to remain competitive.

Module 2.1 Data Definition Understanding that data is not only useful after analysis but is the most important input in information system development. I understood that businesses find new strategies to have a competitive advantage in the industry. In the beginning, I had the thought that data is the raw materials collected from an environment at the time it is meaningless unless evaluated and analyzed. This meant that data could not be used in developing any innovations. However, from this module, I learned that data is the core driver of innovation, and it is the fuel of the systems. It allows the systems to work hence important from the very beginning. It affects all the decisions and strategies created in business and runs business intelligence units. Therefore, data is the core driver of every operation of an entity and is essential in the successful innovation developed.

Module 2.2 Porters value chain concept Business units are dependent on each other for operations to continue. The primary activities cannot be successful without the supporting activities in a company. A value chain is a series of steps developed in changing raw data into a useful idea that is helpful to an entity. It coordinates departments of an organization to work towards a common objective. The porter’s value chain connects the primary activities to the support activities. The primary activities are those that occur in the daily operations of a firm while the support ensures that the primary is accomplished. The primary is such as logistics, operations, sales, which are supported by the administration, human resource, management, procurement management, and product development. An entity is not able to perform its activities without personnel support. Decisions are made by the support activities and provide resources for the accomplishment of the tasks. As the two activities work together, value addition is achieved, consequently leading to the attainment of goals. Each chain takes part to support the roles of another, hence improving productivity.

Module 3.1 SAP Business one capabilities Enterprise resource planning systems does not only help in management of a specific department but rather the all functions such as accounting, human resource financial reporting, banking and asset management. A complete ERP solution requires management of performance, a software plan, and a forecast of the financial progression of an entity. The SAP ERP functions to improve margins, reduce errors, and drive more profitable decision making. It has a function in accounting, banking and reconciliation, financial reporting, and fixed asset management. It manages accounting processes and cashflow, simplifies fixed asset management with virtual function, process reconciliation, and bank statements, and creates reports for the entity. With these functions, the SAP fulfills the functions of an ERP; thus, a supply chain is represented, which provides appropriate ERP for a company.

The SAP is a solution to ERP II due to its feature of supply and design areas. It focuses on all the functions of a company with the inclusion of mobility of information and products. The SAP capabilities provide a solution to entity functions through extended functions hence would solve the challenges in ERP.

Module 3.2 Application of Predictive Analytics Past data can be used in the prediction of future events. This is through the process of predictive analytics. Therefore, data should be stored for future referencing. The application of predictive analytics would be helpful for Jawaharlal in finding the right tickets for the coming holiday. Predictive analytics focuses on the currents trends to forecast future trends. Therefore, Jawaharlal can use the information on past holidays provided to analyze and evaluate the types of tickets used, have knowledge of current trends and find ways to improve them, and appropriately provide for future requirements. The mix of skills requires constant developments, which gives the reason for having an improved future compared to the past. The available information of the past will help find the solution for the future, by developing tickets for ServiceNow in a specific duration of a holiday.

Module 4.1 IT alignment The various managers of departments should have the same objective in order to work towards its accomplishment. Therefore, communication between the mangers is an essential factor in IT alignment. Rainer and Prince identify the three reasons for failure in business alignment to include the different objectives set by business managers and IT managers, ignorance of IT and business departments to other groups’ expertise, and lack of communication. Among the three reasons for failure in alignment, I find a lack of communication easier to address. This is because the business environment influences the freedom personnel to have to give opinions, suggestions, and ask for clarifications whenever in doubt. Lack of communication challenges could be enhanced by encouraging personnel to speak out. This may be through rewards for the successful accomplishment of tasks, recognition for essential services provided, and giving responsibilities to individuals to complete the tasks. Recognition and rewards for success encourage individuals to communicate with other personnel to improve their departments.

Module 4.2 Feedback to classmate presentation Confidence contributes to the quality of a presentation. Lively presentation attracts attention of audience. I found one of my classmate’s confidence overwhelming. The way the presentation was made, along with audience involvement and explanation of concepts, was done exclusively well. This made the presentation lively and easy to understand information passed.

Module 5.1 Tools for groupwork project accomplishment Group members’ contribution to group project enhance well-developed work due to various concepts from group members. In the group work, the team members worked using the pair squire technique where every team member was required to contribute to the discussions made in the project. It involved the pairing of the group members into smaller units where each group discusses their work and collectively come together to combine the work into one group’s work. All the team members go through the work to check for errors and improve it as required by the instructor. The method is beneficial as it allows every person’s contribution to matter in the final work. Also, people get to learn from one another since we all have different experiences that vary our thinking capacity. From the contributions, the final draft of the work is developed hence producing standardized groupwork.

The other tool applied was the team contract, where an agreement is made by the group member to participate in the activities of the group fully. The agreement included total engagement and contribution to the group work. Also, an individual was expected to support fellow team members, which encouraged them to be productive and work towards attaining the target of the group. These two techniques would benefit the work of the group to develop a standard and efficient information for the group work.

Module 5.2 Technique for Hacking Hacking does not take lots of time as I thought. It’s a simple process and to be safe from this, companies and personnel should be cautious before performing activities directed through phone calls. The hacker uses a less than 2-minute technique to hack a company’s computer. The technique involves three steps. First, spoofing his number so that it looks like the call is coming from inside a company. Second, the call is made to texapore to explain a procedure that gives them access to the computer and lastly making the computer owner click a directive hyperlink that grants access. Through the steps, the hacker can get into the other party’s computer and get the information required.

The victim should have first confirmed the truth of the problem before being convinced to take the action he did. With technological innovation, it is easy to confirm information from another individual even when they are far.


Camisón-Haba, S., Clemente-Almendros, J., & Gonzalez-Cruz, T. (2019). How technology-based firms become also highly innovative firms? The role of knowledge, technological and managerial capabilities, and entrepreneurs’ background. Journal Of Innovation & Knowledge, 4(3), 162-170.

Charoensuk, S., Wongsurawat, W., & Khang, D. (2014). Business-IT Alignment: A practical research approach. The Journal Of High Technology Management Research, 25(2), 132-147.

Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2017). The Kolb Learning Style Inventory. Retrieved from

Rainer, K. R., & Prince, B. (2019). Introduction to Information Systems (pp. 293-296) (7th ed.). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest

SAP. (n.d.). SAP Business One Features. Retrieved from -accessibility