Management Functions and Styles

Management Functions and Styles

Management Functions and Styles


Institution of Affiliation



In every institution, management plays a critical role in ensuring what they are entrusted with runs successfully. The four critical roles tasked to managements include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Litvinova, 2020). However, management may have more functions depending on their job description and their execution of work. Henry Fayol was one of the prominent theorists to discover and define functions of management in 1916. In his book, he identified five functions essential for managers to perform their roles daily in their organizations bounded with the 14 principles of management.

Planning is one of the critical roles of management in every sector. Managers must execute plans, develop targets, strategies, and objectives and later look out for implementation to achieve the goals. Planning activities ahead of time to see that the objectives follow the right direction minimizing the chances of deviation and time and resource wastage when everything is communicated prior. Managers minimize many unintended risks. They can look forward and predict various changes likely to affect the end goal and deal with the changes early enough. Effective decision-making also comes in handy when planning is done.

Managers should ensure the workforce combines efforts towards achieving the firms’ goals through the organization in a thorough manner and structure, ensuring that the company’s activities are well adhered. Various hierarchies should be able to work together with their departments without demeaning the subordinates at the organization. Therefore, the most significant task is on managers during training and recruitment to ensure that they hire the right people with sufficient skills and education. The organization facilitates good use of human capital, Division of Labor among the workforce, adequately defined roles, and encourages responsibility through creativity and innovation.

Controlling is interrelated with other management functions. Its efforts heavily rely on the relationship of activities. Their conformity and managers have to ensure progress is made in line with the organizations’ plans and objectives and correct any errors. This ensures that the organization’s workforce is keen while carrying out their activities to ensure little or no room for mistakes. Good use of the resources is upheld, making work easy for managers to track past events in case of need.

Leadership function wholly depends on the manager’s efforts to ensure that the workforce is well guided and their performance is dependable on achieving the organization’s goals. Managers can do leading by giving orders and ensuring no negotiations follow, providing guidelines, offering motivations, and giving room for others to decide which approach they would like in the leadership approach (Kharchenko, 2021). Leading is critical in ensuring maximum efficiency in achieving organizational goals.

Behavior patterns displayed by leaders while carrying out their roles reflect their style of leadership, which emerges from the leader’s personality, experience, belief, and value system. There are four main styles of leadership in organizations. Autocratic leadership involves giving orders to subordinates and commanding obedience without giving room for suggestion and ideas consideration. Democratic leadership gives room for consultation and considers the opinion and contributions of the employees in policy formulation. Free-Rein leadership style allows employees to practice their work with independence with minimum supervision. Paternalistic leadership is a style that sees leaders taking up their roles as paternal and invoking a father figure in their working environment.

Managers can motivate the people around them by energizing, sustaining, and directing their endeavors. Employees, when invigorated, can perform tasks excitedly while putting in the required effort to achieve the organizational targets. Various factors that contribute to motivation include personalities, level of job satisfaction, reward system, and the ultimate goals, to mention a few. Managers are encouraged to try to influence the motivation levels of their employees.


Kharchenko, V. (2021). Motivation and Motivation Profiles of the Employees in a Modern Organization. Sociologicheskaja Nauka I Social’naja Praktika, 9(1), 156–171.

Litvinova, N. N. (2020). Multifaceted CrossRef DOI: Do We Use All Functions? Scholarly Research and Information, 3(2-3), 155–165.