Literature Review on Globalization

Literature Review on Globalization

Literature Review on Globalization


Gillespie,B and Leflaive,X 2007, “Innovation, globalization and the environment”, OECD Observer,no.261,pp.38-40

Sachs,J 2010,”Globalisation in the era of environment crisis”, International Trade Forum, no.1,pp.7-10.

Globalization is a precedure of interaction and integration between the people, companies, and governments of different countries. This procedure has an impact on many aspects such as, the economy, politics and the environment. Thus, globalization has become a debatable issue recently; so much work has been done to date in order to identify the link between globalization and the environment.Two different articles reveal contrasting perspectives on globalization and the environment. Brendan Gillespie and Xavier Leflaive from the OECD Observer, in their article” Innovation globalization and the environment” examine the various viewpoints of globalization. While, Jeffrey Sachs, Professor of Health policy and Management of Columbia University and special adviser on the Millennium Development Goals to UN Secretary, offers a biased view of globalization. Both articles provide useful information to aid the readers to have better comprehension of this issue.

Gillespie and Leflaive emphasise that environmental solutions, while necessary for the planet, can also be a valuable part of international economic development. All countries must work together to achieve a positive result. The responsibility of initial action lies with OECD nations, as they have most contributed to this problem, and they can afford solutions to it. Those governments must encourage private enterprise, while monitoring their own activities for green credibility. They conclude by remarking on the difficulties of encouraging people to be environmentally responsible.

Jeffrey Sachs begins this essay by pointing out the huge damage that humans have done, and are doing, to the planet and its other inhabitants. Destruction of water sources and the atmosphere, and therefore food resources occurs. Demand for food and use of chemicals is now so great that it is destroying other species and soon will be unsustainable. Governments and people need, now, to agree on technologies for power, water and food.

The article by Gillespie and Leflaive Provides a useful insight into the impact of globalization and solutions for it. This article would appeal to scientists and politicians, who would find it rich in information. It is well researched because it has many references and they are reliable references for example, information is drawn from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In addition, the authors have divided their article into many sections and this might help the readers to follow the ideas more easily. Moreover, they have used relevant examples, such as, “hybrid cars are being marketed”, and “eco-friendly houses are being built”. (p.39). The well organised and range of the key points in the article make it easy for the readers to find crucial information. As globalization is a very significant topic in this era the authors make a few suggestions, for instance, people should recycle and switch lights off. Throughout, the article, the authors have achieved their purpose successfully. However, there are some aspects which have weakened the article. The first weakness is that the authors failed to list the names of OCED countries, it would have been better if they had listed them for more clarity. Another, weakness is the picture which was included, as it did not add any value to the article if there was a graph instead of the picture it may have made the article more understandable. The authors present irrelevant information about Europe without any clear purpose for it.

In contrast, Sachs’s article seeks to persuade readers that globalization has a negative impact on the environment, in other words the author has a narrow view of globalization. The writer has the authority to write in this field as he is a Special Adviser on the Millennium Development Goals to UN Secretary. Sachs warns of the risks of the globalization effect on the environment. He supports that by giving some examples such as, the effect on the ozone, the use of CFCs and the anthropogenic effect. In addition, the author coins a new term for example, “anthropocene”, however, the explanation of it is sufficient(p7).Sachs uses a number of technical words to explain the ideas in the article” fertilizer, chemical, nitrous oxide”(p9).Furthermore, the author’s evidence is reliable as quotes from the UN Frame- Work Convention on Climate Change. Overall, it is a comprehensible article and its ideas are clear and well organized. However, it would have been better if the author had explained the meaning of “chlorofluorocarbons” (p7). Readers who interested in gaining a broader understanding of globalization may notice the lack of references.

To sum up, whereas, Gillespie and Leflaive look broadly at globalization and the environment in terms of effects and solutions. Sachs focuses more narrowly and he has a pessimistic view of globalization. Both articles are relevant to the 21st century and the authors have achieved their purpose successfully. The two articles could be helpful for students or science enthusiasts who require a broad view of the controversial debate on globalization.