Law, Justice

Law, Justice

Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction / Edition 3

Table of Contents

PrefaceAcknowledgmentsChapter 1. LAW: Its Function and PurposeIntroductionWhat Is Law?The Six Primary Characteristics of Culture and Their Relationship to Law1. Beliefs2. Values3. Norms4. Symbols5. Technology6. LanguageThe Code of HammurabiEarly Thinkers About LawPlatoAristotleThomas HobbesJohn LockeJohn RawlsSociological Perspectives of LawMax WeberEmile DurkheimTwo Opposing Perspectives: Consensus and ConflictThe Consensus PerspectiveThe Conflict PerspectiveSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesChapter 2. Justice and the LawIntroductionWhat Is Justice?Distributive JusticeRetributive JusticeProblems with Aristotle’s Definition of JusticeLegal RealismWhere Does Justice Come From? Two Perspectives of Law and Justice as NaturalThe Transcendental Natural Law PerspectiveThe Evolutionary PerspectiveWhat Is the Relationship of Law to Justice?EquityAn Example of an Equity DecisionGarofalo and Natural CrimeThe Rule of LawJustice Evolving: Cesare Beccaria and ReformHerbert Packer’s Models of Criminal JusticeThe Crime Control ModelThe Due Process ModelAn Illustration of the Models in ActionSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 3. Making LawIntroductionCommon LawPrecedent and Stare DecisisSources of LawSources of Individual RightsThe ConstitutionThe Bill of RightsFirst AmendmentSecond AmendmentThird AmendmentFourth AmendmentFifth AmendmentSixth AmendmentSeventh AmendmentEighth AmendmentNinth AmendmentTenth AmendmentOther AmendmentsThirteenth AmendmentFourteenth AmendmentStandard of ReviewIncorporation of the Bill of Rights in the Fourteenth AmendmentJudicial ReviewMarbury v. MadisonThe Process of Amending the ConstitutionSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 4. Federal and State CourtsIntroductionJurisdictionThe Federal CourtsDistrict CourtsCourts of AppealsSupreme CourtThe State CourtsOverview of the Criminal ProcessThe Jury and Its SelectionJury SelectionThe TrialSentencingAppealsCourt ActorsJudgesProsecutorsDefense AttorneysThe Legal ProfessionSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 5. Crime and Criminal LawIntroductionWhat Is Crime?Sources of Criminal LawLimitations on Criminal LawElements of Criminal LiabilityCommon Elements of Criminal OffensesLiability Without FaultInchoate CrimesAttemptSolicitationConspiracyParties to CrimeDefenses to Criminal LiabilityJustification DefensesExcuse DefensesProcedural Defenses: EntrapmentCrimes Against the PersonMurderForcible RapeAggravated AssaultRobberyCrimes Against PropertyArsonBurglaryLarceny/TheftCrimes Against Public Order and MoralitySummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 6. Criminal ProcedureIntroductionPurpose of Criminal Procedure LawSources of Criminal Procedure LawSearch and Seizure Law and the Fourth AmendmentThe Warrant and Reasonableness ClausesProbable CauseArrestWhen an Officer May ArrestManner of ArrestTypes of SeizuresSearchesReasonable Expectation of PrivacyExceptions to the Search Warrant RequirementRight to the Assistance of CounselRight to Counsel During Interrogations and Pretrial Identification ProceduresCustodyInterrogationCircumstances in Which Miranda Is Not RequiredExtension and Application of the Miranda WarningsPretrial Identification ProceduresThe Confrontation of Witnesses ClauseThe Right to Compulsory Process ClauseThe Exclusionary RuleAdvancing Toward the Exclusionary RuleCurtailing the Exclusionary RuleSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 7. Civil and Administrative LawIntroductionDifferentiating Criminal and Civil LawTort LawTort CategoriesDefenses to LiabilityTort ReformProperty LawInterests in Real PropertyInterests in Personal PropertyContract LawElements of a Valid ContractFamily LawWho May Marry Whom?The Supreme Court and the Right to MarryThe Road to Same-Sex MarriageCommon Law MarriageDivorce and AnnulmentDividing Property, Child Custody, and Spousal SupportAdministrative LawOrigins and Growth of Administrative AgenciesLegislative Function of Administrative AgenciesInvestigatory and Enforcement Function of Administrative AgenciesJudicial Function of Administrative AgenciesAdministrative Law and Corporate CrimeRecent Responses to Corporate CrimeEnvironmental LawThe Development of Environmental Laws and RegulationsEnforcement of Environmental LawsEnvironmental CrimeSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases Cited

Chapter 8. Juvenile JusticeIntroductionWhat Is Juvenile Delinquency?The Extent of DelinquencyDevelopmental Factors and Juvenile DelinquencyHistory and Philosophy of Juvenile JusticeInstitutional ControlChildhood in the United StatesThe Child SaversThe Beginning of the Juvenile CourtsJuvenile Waiver to Criminal CourtExtending Due Process to JuvenilesKent v. United StatesIn re GaultIn re WinshipMcKeiver v. PennsylvaniaBreed v. JonesSchall v. MartinGraham v. FloridaMiller v. Alabama 212The Juvenile Death PenaltyEroding the Distinction Between Adult and Juvenile Court SystemsRestorative JusticeSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 9. The Law and Social ControlIntroductionWhat Is Social Control?A Typology of Social ControlThe Law as a Social Control MechanismPunishment and DeterrenceOther Philosophies of PunishmentBlack’s Styles of Social ControlSocial Control and the Criminal Justice SystemIs the United States Soft on Crime?Plea BargainingThe Death Penalty DebateArguments Against the Death PenaltyArguments Favoring the Death PenaltyThe Law and Social Control of Political DissentTherapeutic Social Control: Law and Psychiatry”No Taxation Without Representation!”: A Case of Judicial Social ControlSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases Cited

Chapter 10. The Limits of Social Control: Policing ViceIntroductionWhat Is a Vice Crime?Homosexuality and SodomyThe Law and Gay Rights Versus Religious LibertyThe Concept of “Compelling Government Interest”Can the Rights of Both Gays and Religious Dissenters Be Protected?Prostitution and Commercialized ViceShould Prostitution Be Decriminalized/Legalized?Pornography/ObscenityAbortionAlcohol and Illicit DrugsTaming the Beast in the BottleIllicit DrugsThe Future of Drug RegulationSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 11. Law, Social Change, and the Class StruggleIntroductionWhat Is Social Change?The Law as a Cause of Social ChangeSocial Movements, the Law, and Social ChangeBritish Law and the American RevolutionLaw and Social Engineering in the Former USSRThe US Supreme Court and Social ChangeDynamic and Constrained Views of the Supreme Court’s PowerThe Legitimacy Basis of the Court’s PowerJustice Anthony Kennedy: The Most Powerful Man in the United States?Interpreting the Constitution: Strict Construction or Living Document?The Supreme Court and the Class StruggleThe Fourteenth Amendment and Business InterestsSocial Justice, Equality, and Freedom: A DebateThe Argument for Social JusticeThe Argument Against Social JusticeThe Supreme Court’s Role in Inducing Social ChangeBringing the Country Together Through Case LawThe Activism of the Warren and Burger CourtsSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 12. Women and the LawIntroductionFeminist Legal TheoryWomen and Law in History: The Birth of Misogyny and Other TriumphsThe Relative Value of Citizens: The Struggle for Women’s SuffrageWoman as Human and PersonRape and Other Misogynous AtrocitiesWomen’s Work and Other Legal MattersThe UNCEFDW and the Equal Rights AmendmentDomestic ViolenceWomen’s Representation in the Legal ProfessionThe Bias StudiesLaw, Equality, and JusticeBuilding UnderstandingSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases Cited

Chapter 13. Racial Minorities and the LawIntroductionAfrican AmericansSlavery and the LawThe Amistad CaseThe Dred Scott CaseEmancipation and the Reconstruction PeriodThe Emergence of Jim Crow LawsSegregation, Disenfranchisement, and the Plessy and Williams CasesLynching and Black Protest”We Shall Overcome”Congressional ActivityThe Cold War and International PressureAmerican IndiansThe Early YearsThe Marshall Trilogy: Defining Indian StatusThe Period of Removal and Physical GenocideThe Assimilation Period and Cultural GenocideThe Beginning of the End of Cultural Genocide (With a Few Backward Steps)Asian AmericansHispanicsThe Mexican-American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoPush and Pull: Invitation and ExileSegregation, Jury Representation, and Voting RightsHow Far Have We Come?SummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesCases CitedChapter 14. Comparative Law: Law in Other CulturesIntroductionLaw in Preliterate Bands and TribesLaw in the Modern World: The Four TraditionsCommon LawCivil LawSocialist LawIslamic LawThe Four Traditions and the Rule of LawThe Convergence of SystemsSummaryDiscussion QuestionsReferencesAppendix A: Constitution of the United States of AmericaAppendix B: Student-Friendly Legal WebsitesGlossaryTable of CasesPhoto CreditsIndex