Mireya Ibanez

March 29, 2021

BME 295C

Ms. Barton


Health Challenges: Significance, Incidence, Symptoms or Consequences

A Traumatic Brain injury is the leading cause of disability and death amongst children and young adults. In the US it is estimated that 1.5 millions of Americans obtain a TBI each year with the number still increasing. TBI’s also contributed to the deaths of 56,8000 people including children. A Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head or body. Symptoms for a Traumatic brain injury are typically placed into 4 categories including, thinking/remembering, physical, emotional, and somnolence. Obtaining a TBI cause the person to potentially have physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. People who obtain a Traumatic Brain injury tend to have effects that last several days, months, or even years and typically disrupt a person’s ability to function in their everyday lives. These effects aren’t limited to impairments related to memory, movement, thought process, sensation, hearing, emotional dysfunction. Traumatic Brain injuries are major causes to long term disability with a limit on the treatments available to people.

Current diagnosis/Treatment/Management

There are a number of tests and assessments conducted before an injury to the brain can be classified as a Traumatic Brain injury. Typically, assessment requires a neurological examination evaluate thinking, motor function sensory function, coordination and reflexes by using a CT scan and MRI. There is currently a lack of effective treatments for Traumatic Brain injuries. There are both medical and surgical interventions that can be performed to help with the management of the obtained TBI. Today there are many efforts in creating therapeutic approaches and strategies in dealing with Traumatic Brain injuries.

New biomedical engineering solution and benefits

A therapeutic approach for a Traumatic Brain Injury involves Mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Stem cell therapy, meaning using stem cells from the own individual is a believed therapy to enhance the repair of the injured brain. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy has been showing promising results in ongoing clinical studies. The clinical trials have at least entered the beginning stages (safety phases) for multiple diseases and injuries including TBI’s. Researchers have been able to get a better understanding of what occurs to the body after sustaining a TBI and how Mesenchymal stem cells repairs the brain and improves functional outcomes with rats. One specific method involves transplantation Mesenchymal stem cells which release trophic and pro-repair cytokine, specifically interleukin10. The study tests the therapeutic effects when transplanted into rats that endured a Traumatic brain injury in the frontal cortex. There were significant improvements to reduce inflammation and promote functional outcomes, although further testing and research needs to be conducted. Another study was designed to promote the behavior of the stem cells by incorporating R-GSIK in rats. There was significant recovery of motor function observed in the rats that received Mesenchymal stem cells and R-GSIK. Another study combined Mesenchymal stem cells with Sox2 to improve the recovery in rat with a TBI. 26 rats were used in a study, with 2 rats being bone marrow stem cell donors. 2 days after a Traumatic Brain injury, the rats were induced with SOX-2 and the study examined the effects of SOX-2 with the differentiation of bsMSCs. The motor function was tested using NSS. (Neurological severity score) These treatments are steps to creating effective and efficient therapy for Traumatic Brain Injuries.