Introduction to Criminology
Punishment for wrongdoing should have a pre-established balance with the crime committed, meaning that punishment imposed for murder should not be equal to rape or lesser forms of delinquency (Siegel 10). In classical criminology, people are free to choose lawful solutions to solve their challenges, crime is appealing if it has big befits with small effort, and crime is controlled by the fright of punishment. Also, very strict consequences for crime and similar forms of punishment discourage criminal behavior.
In this view, positivist criminology challenges classical criminology and focuses on the cause of crime (Siegel 11). To explain criminal behavior, the positivists use scientific methodology, social factors, physical factors, and biological attributes.
Sociological criminology focuses on the major social changes taking place in society (Siegel 12). People in society are very different and use criminal behavior to meet their demands. It is difficult for society to remain without criminal behavior since human petty vices would be uplifted to crimes.
Conflict criminology emphasizes that crime result from human conflict and interpersonal conflicts shapes human behavior (Siegel 13). People’s lives rotate around the means of production, the way people produce goods affects their character.
Question 1 A.
Positivist criminology developed in the nineteenth century and it presented an innovative way on the cause of crime. People pass through different stages as a way of understanding the world (Siegel 11). For instance, in the early stages societies believed that lifeless objects like the sun have a life while in late social stages societies accept science. The reason I chose this perspective is because in comparison to other perspectives, positive criminology is more applicable to modern life, as it focuses on the motive of committing a crime to determine the punishment for crimes committed. The scientific analyses of the crimes ensure justice is served to both parties since every party is considered including the accused.
Question 1 B.
Positivist criminology examines human behavior scientifically to determine if one is a criminal (Siegel 11). For example, a study on the facial appearance of criminals found that the shape of nose ears, and eyes were related to antisocial behavior. Furthermore, studies on abnormality found that anomaly of the human mind is associated with criminal behavior. Criminals have features that differentiate them from non-criminals. Lombroso’s study found that there were born criminals who had teeth common to carnivores (Siegel 11). People with such features are more prone to criminal behavior compared to non-criminals
Criminal justice is made up of all of the bodies in a government that have the mandate to enforce the law, adjudicate crime, and correct criminal conduct (Siegel 19). Crime justice experts develop effective programs for crime prevention. Criminal justice is primarily an instrument of social monitoring and control. It is used to enforce wat society considers acceptable behavior. Agencies of justice, who form part of the criminal justice system, prevent social harms through apprehension, trying, and convicting criminals. Therefore, the criminal justice system has all the power to control crime as well as punish law breakers.
On the other hand, criminology is concerned with identifying the cause, nature, extent, and control of criminal behavior using scientific means (Siegel 4). Criminologists also are concerned with the operation of agencies’ justice and their influence on criminals, including how policies affect crime rates and trends. Criminology is primarily a study of crime, its various forms and triggers, including what may lead to increased or increased trends given different factors. Therefore, criminology is just an academic discipline that relies on science to provide meaningful interpretation of crime and criminal patterns.
Siegel, L. “Criminology: The core: Cengage learning.” (2019).