Integrative Literature Review
Nurses are typically at the healthcare delivery system’s forefront and have been announced to show a significant level of burnout. Job burnout is a huge challenge in social professions, particularly in healthcare globally. Job burnout refers to a mental, physical, and emotional exhaustion state that is brought about by long-time demands mismatch associated with the worker’s resources and the job. According to Dyerbye et al. (2017), about half of the entire nursing workforce is having job burnout with the possibility of possible risk to patients, job dysfunction, and personal consequence. Job burnout is frequently connected to nurses’ intention to quit their profession because it is characterized by three classic symptoms, which include reduced personal accomplishment, cynicism (depersonalization), and exhaustion (Kelly et al., 2020). The burnout nurses may get exhausted while trying their best to ensure caring for various patients with minimal chances of recovery. Also, nurses with job burnout may show depersonalization in various uncharacteristic negative behaviors, incivility towards co-workers, and poor communication with different co-workers.
Nurses experience poor self-esteem that is job-related and lacks motivation when they have job burnout. They also feel that they are underperforming in their various job responsibilities. Thus, they may experience a lack of contentment and reduced personal accomplishment concerning job-related stressors like burnout and, in the end, leave their position. The nurses leaving their job not only disrupts patient care but is connected to high financial costs. However, it is difficult to adequately establish how nurses with job burnout compared to those without job burnout affect medical care than retaining their positions. Therefore, this literature review concerning the effect of medical care over hospital stay by nurses experiencing job burnout compared to those without job burnout will attempt to close the present gaps in knowledge.
In patients, how do nurses who are suffering from job burnout compared to nurses not suffering from job burnout affect the medical care over the hospital stay?
Job burnout is an essential under-studied facet of nursing. In nursing, it is a threat to U.S. healthcare and health. Workload has been a significant cause of the frightening increase in burnout in nursing. Alleviating burnout factors is a complicated issue that requires strategies to support the efforts. As job burnout for nurses continues to increase, how it impacts medical care than hospital stay compared to lack of job burnout offers a compelling ground for carrying out this particular line of research. Thus, this literature review is aimed at establishing the nurses’ job burnout effect on medical care than hospital stay compared to nurses without job burnout.
Summary and Appraisals of Selected Literature
Munnangi et al. (2018) conducted a cross-sectional survey investigating various principal factors, including job satisfaction, perceived stress, burnout, and professional and personal demographics. Munnangi et al.’s (2018) study provide that stress and burnout in safety-net hospitals for trauma nurses can impact patient care negatively. Munnangi et al.’s (2018) study found that the emotional exhaustion extent experiences by various nurses differed with the job location. It was huge in nurses of the surgical care intensive care unit. Also, the study revealed there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, and stress which are all impacted by the work environment.
Mohamed (2019) utilized a mixed-methods design to compare second-career and first-career nurses’ experiences of burnout, presenteeism, and stress in the transition to practice. Mohamed’s (2019) study revealed burnout prevalence, explaining nursing roles where it can result in staff shortage due to resignation and infective quality delivery. In addition, there were possible burnout consequences for all participants, which depended on their own health, patient care, and unit culture.
Afriyie (2020) utilized a self-reported questionnaire and cross-sectional design to evaluate emotional labor’s influence on burnout syndrome. Afriyie (2020) provides that burnout syndrome impacts nurses’ quality of care offered to patients, job satisfaction, performance, and quality of care. Thus, emotional resilience should be increased to lower burnout in nurses.
Kelly et al. (2020) conducted a nonexperimental study to establish the relationship between position and organization turnover and burnout. Kelly et al.’s (2020) study showed that 54 percent of nurses suffered from moderate burnout, and emotional exhaustion increased by 10 percent. Kelly et al. (2020) and Shah et al. (2021) revealed a significant burnout impact on organizational turnover, where there is an increase in nurses leaving their job due to an increase in emotional exhaustion.
Diehl et al. (2021) offer the closest example in the present literature to the current proposed research study for undertaking this literature review. Diehl et al. (2021) applied a cross-sectional survey to investigate the moderating resource’s role in the connection between burnout and workload among nurses. Diehl et al.’s (2021) study revealed that nurses who described recognition from the supervisor, a better working team, and workplace commitment portrayed a weaker relationship between burnout and quantitative demands than nurses who did not. Typically, nurses spend 20 percent of their job time in palliative care. Thus, Diehl et al. (2021) associate spending more time than this with burnout.
Mudallal et al. (2018) provide a comparative example in the present literature to the current proposed research study for undertaking this literature review. Mudallal et al. (2018) utilized correlational and cross-sectional designs to investigate the burnout level among Jordanian nurses. Also, the study aimed to assess the leader empowering behaviors to influence nurses’ burnout feelings in an urge to better nursing work results. Mudallal et al.’s (2018) study found that Jordanian nurses show high burnout levels due to their high scores for depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. Personal accomplishment demonstrated moderate scores. Also, Mudallal et al. (2018) provided a significant correlation between factors connected to nurses’ demographic traits and work conditions with burnout categories. In addition, Mudallal et al. (2018) describe the importance of nurse leaders’ role in bettering work conditions and motivating and empowering nurses to lower their burnout feeling, better nursing care quality, and reduce turnover rates.
Torrente et al.’s (2021) study provide a close example in the present literature to the current proposed research study for undertaking this literature review. Torrente et al. (2021) conducted an online survey-based and cross-sectional study to investigate the burnout syndrome prevalence in healthcare workers who worked in Spain on the front line during the coronavirus. Eligibility for the study concentrated on Spanish healthcare workers in the usual ward or front line. Torrente et al.’s (2021) study revealed that women healthcare workers felt more significant burnout than men and were considerably afraid of the quality of care offered to the various patients, their performance, and self-infection. Also, being a woman below 30 years and a nurse was connected to a high burnout syndrome risk. Thus, Torrente et al.’s (2021) study reported high burnout syndrome rates and proposed immediate implementation of interventions to ensure mental health for healthcare workers affected by the coronavirus.
Gaps in the Selected Literature
Little to no research exists comparing the impact of medical care over hospital stay by nurses experiencing job burnout compared to those without job burnout. The moderate research present involves the impact of job burnout on hospital stay (turnover), quality care, and patient care (Munnangi et al., 2018; Mohamed, 2019; Afriyie, 2020; Mudallal et al., 2018). Therefore, a gap exists concerning the impact of nurses without job burnout on medical care than hospital stays as only Diehl et al.’s (2021) study attempts to provide the connection, although relating to burnout syndrome in healthcare workers rather than specifically to nurses.
Moreover, a significant gap exists where many of the studies were limited in scope and utilized small samples; this made it difficult to deduce general conclusions for the wider population. For example, Torrente et al. (2021) had most participants obtained from the Madrid Community, which limited the generalization of the presented findings. Also, Mudallal et al. (2018) utilized smaller and less representative samples for every analyzed variable, thus lowering the findings’ generalizability.
The research carried out by Munnangi et al. (2018), Mohamed (2019), Afriyie (2020), and Mudallal et al. (2018) all offer evidence that job burnout in nurses, impact turnover rate, quality care, and patient care. Torrente et al. (2021) further revealed that women healthcare workers felt more significant burnout than men and were considerably afraid of the quality of care offered to the various patients, their performance, and their self-infection. Diehl et al. (2021) provide that nurses who described recognition from the supervisor, a better working team, and workplace commitment portrayed a weaker relationship between burnout and quantitative demands than nurses who did not. In addition, Mudallal et al. (2018) describe the importance of nurse leaders’ role in bettering work conditions and motivating and empowering nurses to lower their burnout feeling, better nursing care quality, and reduce turnover rates. Thus, this research attempts to start the process of closing the huge gap in the present literature. Therefore, with job burnout still being a significant issue for nurses, this proposed research will provide its impact and the need for interventions to improve medical care and reduce turnover rates.
Afriyie, D. (2020). Reducing work-related stress to minimise emotional labour and burn-out syndrome in nurses. Evidence Based Nursing, ebnurs-2020-103321. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebnurs-2020-103321
Diehl, E., Rieger, S., Letzel, S., Schablon, A., Nienhaus, A., Escobar Pinzon, L. C., & Dietz, P. (2021). The relationship between workload and burnout among nurses: The buffering role of personal, social and organisational resources. PLOS ONE, 16(1), e0245798. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245798
Dyrbye, L. N., Shanafelt, T. D., Sinsky, C. A., Cipriano, P. F., Bhatt, J., Ommaya, A., West, C. P., & Meyers, D. (2017). Burnout Among Health Care Professionals: A Call to Explore and Address This Underrecognized Threat to Safe, High-Quality Care. NAM Perspectives, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.31478/201707b
Kelly, L. A., Gee, P. M., & Butler, R. J. (2020). Impact of nurse burnout on organizational and position turnover. Nursing Outlook, 69(1), 96–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2020.06.008
Mohamed, L. K. (2019). First-career and second-career nurses’ experiences of stress, presenteeism and burn-out during transition to practice. Evidence Based Nursing, 22(3), 85–85. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebnurs-2019-103069
Mudallal, R. H., Othman, W. M., & Al Hassan, N. F. (2018). Nurses’ Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 54(1), 004695801772494. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958017724944
Munnangi, S., Dupiton, L., Boutin, A., & Angus, L. D. G. (2018). Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Job Satisfaction Among Trauma Nurses at a Level I Safety-Net Trauma Center. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 25(1), 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1097/jtn.0000000000000335
Shah, M. K., Gandrakota, N., Cimiotti, J. P., Ghose, N., Moore, M., & Ali, M. K. (2021). Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Nurse Burnout in the US. JAMA Network Open, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36469
Torrente, M., Sousa, P. A., Sánchez-Ramos, A., Pimentao, J., Royuela, A., Franco, F., Collazo-Lorduy, A., Menasalvas, E., & Provencio, M. (2021). To burn-out or not to burn-out: a cross-sectional study in healthcare professionals in Spain during COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Open, 11(2), e044945. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044945