Using the case study below, answer the associated questions. The assignment is to be presented in a question/answer format NOT as an essay (i.e. no introduction or conclusion).
Each answer has a word limit (1600 in total); each answer must be supported with citations.
A reference list must be provided at the end of the assignment.
The answers must be linked to the case study given.
Ms Maureen Smith is a 24 year old female who presented to her GP for ongoing gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain and fatigue which has been worsening, and was referred to the local hospital for further investigation. Maureen was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when she was 15 years old, and has experienced multiple exacerbations of RA which have required the use of high dose corticosteroids. She is currently taking 50mg of prednisolone daily, and has been taking this dose since her last exacerbation 2 months ago. Maureen also has type 2 diabetes which is managed with metformin. She is currently studying nursing at university and works part-time at the local pizza restaurant.
On assessment, Maureenâ€™s vital signs are: PR 88 bpm; RR 18 bpm; BP 154/106 mmHg; Temp 36.9ÂºC: SpO2 99% on room air. She has a body mass index (BMI) of 28kg/m2 and the fat is mainly distributed around her abdominal area, as well as a hump between her shoulders. Maureenâ€™s husband notes that her face has become more round over the past few weeks. Her fasting BGL is 14.0mmol/L. Blood test results show low cortisol and ACTH levels, and high levels of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. She is awaiting a bone mineral density test this afternoon, and is currently collecting urine for a 24-hour cortisol level measurement.
The following questions relates to the patient within the first 24 hours since admission to the emergency department (ED):
1. Outline the causes, incidence and risk factors of the identified condition and how it can impact on the patient and family (400 words)
2. List five (5) common signs and symptoms of the identified condition; for each provide a link to the underlying pathophysiology (350 words) (This can be done in the form of a table â€“ each point needs to be appropriately referenced)
3. Describe two (2) common classes of drugs used for patients with the identified condition including physiological effect of each class on the body (350 words) (This does not mean specific drugs but rather the class that these drugs belong to)
4. Identify and explain, in order of priority the nursing care strategies that should use within the first 24 hours post admission for this patient (500 words).