The HIV therapy is normally a medication called antiretroviral therapy (ART) which treats HIV infection and this treatment is given with a combination of one or more medicines. This treatment do not cure the disease but it helps to infected people to live longer and healthie lives.
HIV/AIDS is the most concern health issue problems in the world. It is one of the top healthy problems in the planet due to the widely spread virus that affects the human immune system. Worldwide there are a numerous number of HIV infected persons, both male, female, and children. HIV/AIDS was discovered around in the early 1980s and since then it is considered as a unique healthy issue in terms of medical and social issues due to its stigma and incurable treatment. Many researches have been doing on HIV/AIDS to find out how the virus affects the immune system and how it can be treated for further solutions worldwide.
A. Definition of HIV/AIDS: Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Viruses such as HIV do not grow and replicate by themselves, but they need to infect the cells of a living organism in order to replicate and make more copy of the virus. HIV is the virus that can lead to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the virus will destroy the blood cells called CD4 and the T-cells which are very important to protect the body by fighting against the disease. When the immune system is very low and unable to fight the infection then at this time the virus will change into AIDS. So, it is recommended that for all HIV infected persons to enroll into antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment.
B. HIV/AIDS as a stigma: Since this disease is a life threatening disease, people with HIV are intend to be discriminated in various places, including in work places and communities.
1) Control of infection and life expectancy: (Zahra Hosseini, et al., 2016)
The study of this article mostly deals with the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), that has the ability to decrease the viral load in the body and as a result it increases the longevity of the patient to live long lasting lives. However, in some of the patients who use an injection addicts, the treatment was not work effectively because the patients do not take the medicine consistently. As a result, the virus gets a chance to block the treatments functions and the virus becomes resistance to the drugs.
A. ARV treatment adherence and healthy long-lasting
B. ARV side effects about the treatment when no consistency
C. ARV Follow-up and medications
D. Communication between the case manager and the patient
E. Working with health care professionals to understand the effect of treatment
F. Infection control method and taking care of others from the virus
G. Integrate HIV prevention into AIDS disease
H. Prevent HIV transmission in health care facilities
2).Prevention of HIV transmission and sexual behavior: (Gilbert Ndziessi, et al., 2013)
This journal article deals with the prevention of HIV transmission and sexual behaviors in Cameroon. This includes: Use of condom, sexual activity before and during treatment, religion influence and others to help to understand the general awareness HIV and AIDS in the public. The study deals with HIV positive, HIV negative, and HIV unknown persons by asking anonymously questionnaire to evaluate about their daily activity towards their partners sexual relationship and behaviors. During this study the HIV infection status increased from month zero to month six.
A. Use of condom and HIV status
B. Family supports and personal belief
C. Treatment and confidentiality between the doctor and the patient
D. HIV/AIDS voluntary counseling
E. Treatment and behavioral responsibility
3) Microfinance versus adherence to treatment: (Marcela Arrivillaga, et al., 2014)
According to this study, the majority of women living in poverty were infected with HIV and AIDS in Colombia because most of them are sex worker for living and due to this they do have a high risk of mortality rate. However, the intervention microfinance entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) project was established in order to help for women living with HIV and AIDS to start working with small business to help themselves from poverty and to reduce the death mortality. As a result, the project (IMEA) brings a wonderful changes on women that they become able to understand the awareness of HIV prevention, self-confidence, adherence to treatment of HIV/AIDS and able to control management of healthy life.
A. Quality of life and adherence to treatment
B. Women living with HIV lacks the knowledge of treatment
C. Healthcare issues
D. Poverty and HIV treatment
4)HAART versus increasing with metabolic complications: (Christian AkemMimala, et al., 2016).
This journal article deals with the highly active ART treatment and its side effect. HAART was good for decreasing the viral load of HIV; however, the medication also has a side effects in increases a non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases to HIV infected patients. Some of the side effects include:
A. Blood pressure
D. Alcohol consumption
5) Optimizing adherence and minimizing loss to follow-up for ART program in India: (Mukesh Shukla, et al., 2016)
According to the research study, although the HAART was a very good drug for HIV treatment, some factors were influencing to adherence to ART such as patient and family relationship, between the doctor and the patient, healthcare delivery, social and environmental factors are the major issues during the ART treatments. During the study they following are also included.
A. No follow-up
B. No adherence to ART
C. Ethical clearance
D. The effect of zidovudine (ZDV) and nevirapine (NVP) regimen
E. Medication resistance
F. Religion issues
G. Transportation to take medications
H. Alcohol intake
6) African American, black, medical self-care- HAART, ART, ARV medication: (Gina B. Gaston, et al, 2015)
The research strategy was on different review literatures via the following database: Social Work Abstracts, Medline, PsyclNFO, Academic Search Complete, and PubMed. During that time the ART was not widely distributed and available to all HIV patients. According to the study there were 3 interventions found to continue African Americans in the treatment of HIV includes the outreach and ancillary support services, the theory and perspective based interventions and the use of interventions manuals to manage HIV treatment. Some of the goals during the study were as follows.
A. African Americans in self-care symptom management
B. African Americans in ART
C. Treatment advocacy
D. Positive connections with social workers
HIV patients in the community can affect the stigma and other social, cultural environment and economic and political conditions. So, the public as well the healthcare professionals must take all these problems into considerations in order to avoid all unnecessary discriminations that influence the patients. Treatments and researches also should find further better solutions how to treat and find further medications that able to cure for the diseases.
A) Over all review of HIV/ AIDS treatment
B) The use of counseling and personal belief on HIV
C) How to protect others and get help from others.
Hosseini Z. et al. (2016) Adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy among drug users: A qualitative study in Iran. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res 2016; 21:29-37
Gina B. et al. (2015) Interventions that retain African Americans in HIV/AIDS treatment: Implications for social work practice and research.
Mukesh Shukla et al. (2016) Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS attending two tertiary care hospitals in district of northern India.
Christian AkemDimala, et al. (2016) Prevalence of hypertension in HIV/AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with HAART-naïve patients at the limbe regional hospital, Cameroon.
Marcela Arrivillaga, et al. (2014). The IMEA project: An intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.
Gilbert Ndziessi, et al. (2013). Changes in sexual activity and risk behaviors among PLWHA initiating ART in rural district hospitals in Cameroon: Data from the stratall ANRS 12110/ESTHER trial.