1. What was the intention of the study?
This study is an economic perspective of the relationship between drunk driving and the determinants of the behavior. Defining the sociodemographic determinants of the negative behavior is part of this study in order to create the relevant comparison and create the relationship that they have with economic burdens within the society. The other part of the study involves an assessment of the various social mechanisms to correct the vice and their effectiveness (Mullahy and Sindelar, 384). It is from this perspective that the economic valuation for the full costs of drunk driving are estimated in terms of propensity to drive drunk despite the attached negative results. 2. Is the study descriptive and/or inferential?
Since the study uses tangible data availed in 1988 National Health Interview Survey, it can be said to be partly descriptive. However, due to the temporal variation experienced at the time of the study, it can also be said to be largely inferential. This is because the expected social changes in the manner in which drunk driving is tackled must have changed materially as well as the dissemination of information regarding the vice and public policy. Alternatively, there is an exceptional degree of bias allowance which the authors provide in the appendix. With these elements of the study, it is correct to state that both descriptive and inferential characteristics are exhibiter in the study. 3. What were the variables used in the study?
Study variables in the study are attached to drinking and driving and are mainly presented in the form of sociodemographic determinants as well as the available social deterrent measures in the form of social justice mechanisms (Mullahy and Sindelar, 386). One element of the sociodemographic variables is the full price which the authors related indirectly to the drunk driving behavior. The relationship that drunk driving behavior has with the criminal justice systems can also be said to be a major variable. The effectiveness of the structures in place for the society to deal with this behavior is an important factor in the determination of how the study makes its conclusion. 4. Describe population being studied and list common characteristics.
The 1988 National Health Interview Survey involved a sample of respondents with some interaction with alcoholism or reported struggle with drinking. Some of the common features that the study needed in the respondents included; drinking habits, alcoholism manifestation, reported family struggles with alcohol abuse or alcoholism. 5. Describe and identify the methods used to collect sample data.
The methods used to collect the data are mainly in the survey conducted on individuals with drinking problems as the National Health Interview did. It was a stratified interview technique which used a multi stage probability sampling across the population surveyed. A questionnaire was involved in the actual data collection to match with the intentions of the study. 6. Identify which statistical methods were used to analyze the data and why that one was used (z-test, t-test, f-test, regression analysis, etc.)
Probit regression technique was applied as the statistical approach of choice. 7. Summarize the study’s conclusions.
The study included a unique data collection that involved individual interaction with respondents in order to make conclusions against available policies against the drive drunk behavior. it was possible to demonstrate that drunk driving is a factor of sociodemographic variables coupled to available social deterrent mechanisms (Mullahy and Sindelar, 393). Confidence levels are high as other studies found out that state justice deterrents reduce drunk driving thereby making an impact on policy formulation (Kahn, 208). Involved biases are however factored in a cautionary assumption on how reliable the data should be. Further research should reduce such biases. 8. Do you agree or disagree with the conclusions? Why or why not?
I agree with the conclusions. The observation that there are number of factors that determine the levels of negative behavior is a scientific fact. Demonstrating that sociodemographic variables make specified contributions is particularly positive of the study. Opening up possible limitation areas for future research is an important study strength in academic research. Providing assumptions and biases of the study is likewise acceptable in the study rather than to blindly make conclusions without such academic exceptions.
Kahn M. W., “Counselor Training as a Treatment for Alcoholism: the Helper Therapy Principle in Action”, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 38.3(1992):208-214 Doi: 10.1177/002076409203800304
Mullahy, John & Sindelar, L. Jody “Do Drinkers Know When to Say When? An Empirical Analysis of Drunk Driving,” Economic Inquiry, 32(1994):383-394