Ebola Virus – Assignment. Annotated bibliography

Ebola Virus – Assignment. Annotated bibliography

Annotated bibliography

Paper 2

Name of Student

Name of Institution

Arie, S. (2014). Ebola: an opportunity for a clinical trial? BMJ, 349. g4997 HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4997.long” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4997.long

The article poses a serious question that can revolutionize the Ebola scourge. She proposes that it is high time patients were put to clinical trial with experimental drugs to come up with the cure for the disease.

Gulland, A. (2014). First Ebola treatment is approved by WHO. BMJ, 349, g5539. HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5539.short” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5539.short

The WHO approval is very important as it could turn tables around on the Ebola pandemic. According to the approval, serum from infected patients can successfully treat patients with new infections. US, West Africa and the world need to try this out at least temporarily as individual health experts strive for a better cure.

Hawkes, N. (2014). Ebola outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern, WHO warns. BMJ, 349, g5089. HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5089.short” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5089.short

The article expounds the WHO declaration that the Ebola outbreak in West Africa should not be taken lightly because it is a matter of international concern. According to WHO, the Ebola outbreak should be given a coordinated international approach so that the disease does not spread to the whole world.

Hayman, D.T.S., Emmerich, P., Yu, M., Wang, L-F., Suu-Ire, R., et al. (2010). Long-Term

Survival of an Urban Fruit Bat Seropositive for Ebola and Lagos Bat Viruses. PLoS ONE, 5(8). HYPERLINK “http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011978” l “pone-0011978-g002” http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011978#pone-0011978-g002

The is a study conducted to determine if the migratory fruit bat in West Africa could be harboring and spreading the Ebola virus. The results indicate that the bat can survive for long if it is exposed to the virus, which is pathogenic to other mammals. The migratory bat is a source of food for most people in the region hence increasing infection chances.

Le Gouar, P.J., Vallet, D., David, L., Bermejo, M., Gatti, S., et al. (2009) How Ebola Impacts Genetics of Western Lowland Gorilla Populations. PLoS ONE, 4(12), e8375. HYPERLINK “http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008375” http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008375

The study recognizes the growing incidences of infectious diseases in wild animals as a serious threat to biodiversity. It produces evidence to show that the Ebola epizootic in Western and central Africa caused 90% of deaths in the lowland gorilla.

McCarthy, M. (2014). Texas healthcare worker diagnosed with Ebola. BMJ, 349, g6200. HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6200.short” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6200.short

The article highlights another sensitive incident that still awaits official report. The healthcare worker in question is the nurse who diagnosed the Liberian man who died in Texas due to Ebola. The story development will mean much to the United States. Moreover, the treatment of Ebola patients in US contrasts hugely with the treatment in West Africa, which is the virus’ stronghold.

McCarthy, M. (2014). Liberian man being treated for Ebola in Texas dies. BMJ, 349, g6145. HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6145” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6145

The incident of the Liberian man caused much tension in the United States due to the Ebola scare. This article is quite informative on what transpired from the diagnosis to death of the Liberian.

McCarthy, M. (2014). US to “rethink” Ebola infection control after nurse falls ill. BMJ, 349, g6240. HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6240” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6240

The article highlights further the sensitive incident that still awaits official report. The healthcare worker in question is the nurse who diagnosed the Liberian man who died in Texas due to Ebola. The story development will mean much to the United States. That is why there is the need for US to “rethink” Ebola in terms of policies and travel regulations. The treatment of Ebola patients in US contrasts hugely with the treatment in West Africa, which is the virus’ stronghold.

McCartney, M. (2014). Courage is treating patients with Ebola. BMJ, 349, g4987. HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4987.long” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4987.long

The article samples various reactions of Ebola patients to the scourge. At its central argument is the fact that “courage” is what keeps the patients going because there is no hope at all once one is diagnosed with Ebola. This article is crucial for discussing patient experience, which is an essential element of this paper.

Petrosova, A., Konry, T., Casnier, S., Latwama, J. et al. (2007). Development of a highly sensitive, field operable biosensor for serological studies of Ebola virus in central Africa. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 122(2), 578-586. HYPERLINK “http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400506004680” http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400506004680

The article discusses the use of a new optical immunosensor that detects antibodies directed against Ebola virus strains of Zaire, Sudan and West Africa. The new device was of much importance at its inception and helped tackle the Ebola scourge in Africa.

Sayburn, A. (2014). WHO gives go ahead for experimental treatments to be used in Ebola outbreak. BMJ, 349, 5161. HYPERLINK “http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5161.abstract” http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5161.abstract

The article expounds on the announcement by WHO to the effect that experimental vaccines for Ebola can be used to treat the disease in West Africa. This article is quite informative as it gives an insight on the health interventions that the West African states have taken against Ebola.

Thacker, P. D. (2003). An Ebola Epidemic Simmers in Africa. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(3), 317-319. HYPERLINK “http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=196948” http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=196948

The article is informative about the first traces of Ebola virus in Africa. It claims that the virus spread fast over a vast area spanning Gabon and Congo then to West Africa. Health officials were reluctant about the virus despite the rising deaths. The article recommended a new approach to dealing with the virus.

Towner. J.S., Pourrut. X., Albariño, C.G., Nkogue, C.N., Bird, B.H., et al. (2007) Marburg Virus Infection Detected in a Common African Bat. PLoS ONE 2(8): e764.  HYPERLINK “http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000764” http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000764

The study was conducted on the premise that Marburg and Ebola viruses have a very high potential to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and other apes. The researchers set out to discover the sources of these viruses. Gabon and majority of West Africa had the highest concentration of the viruses.

Trad, M-A., Fisher, D. A. and Tambyah, P. A. (2014). Ebola in West Africa. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1045. HYPERLINK “http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(14)70924-7/fulltext” http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(14)70924-7/fulltext

The article challenges a Lancet editorial on the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The authors claim that the Lancet editorial failed to appreciate the huge efforts by governments and NGOs in containing the disease. This article could serve as an insight into what the government and NGOs are doing in West Africa about Ebola.

Walsh, P.D., Biek, R., Real, L.A. (2005). Wave-Like Spread of Ebola Zaire. PLoS Biol 3(11): e371. HYPERLINK “http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030371” l “pbio-0030371-g006” http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030371#pbio-0030371-g006

The study begins from the premise that the Zaire strain of the Ebola virus has spread rapidly killing many people and chimpanzees. The Zaire strain is believed to be the mother of all other Ebola visus strains in Africa, including the West Africa ones.