Topic; Dynastic Cycle
Definition of the term
Dynastic cycle is a term that was used by the Chinese describing the passage of ruling from one generation to the other. It is a significant political theory in making of the Chinese history. As regards to the theory, every dynasty must go through the culture cycle.
Shang Dynasty, it is the earliest indicated record of the Chinese history so far discovered, perhaps in thirteen century BC. It takes the description of divination records on the shells of animals and the bones which are currently termed as the oracle bones. The archaeological findings showing some evidence for the in-existence of this Shang Dynasty around, ca. 1600-1046 BC is grouped in two sets. The initial set from the former Shang period arises from the sources at Shangcheng and Erligang Zhengzhou (Gernet et al, 1996). The second set arises from the afterward Shang or Yin period and comprises of a huge body of the oracle bones writings. This dynasty of Shang featured thirty one kings, that is, from king Tang of Shang to king Zhou of Shang (Gernet et al, 1996). During this era the Chinese citizens worshipped several dissimilar gods such as gods of weather and the gods of sky not excluding the supreme god by the title Shangdi who was the ruler over the inferior gods. The people who lived during the dynasty of Shang had a belief that when their grandparent and parents die they became like gods. As their ancestors too wanted to be worshipped like other gods, every family worshiped their own ancestors.
At around 1500 BC, the Chinese started to make use of written oracle bones to foretell the future. The Chinese were too worshipping a natural power by the name tian, which is mostly interpreted as Heaven. Like the supreme god Shangdi, Heaven had more power to rule over the other gods and he was in a position to make a decision over who would rule his nation. The ruler was authorized to be in charge of ruler ship on condition that, she or he had authority of Heaven. Incase the natural disasters occurred repeatedly and in great numbers and more so if the sovereign had lost his interest for the people, it was considered that, the emperor in charge had lost his consent of Heaven. As a result, the royal house would be deposed, and a new royal house would be given the ruler ship having been approved the authority of Heaven (Gernet et al, 1996).
As stated by the records of the grand historian, the Shang Dynasty shifted its capital six times and the most significant time which was the final one shifted to Yin in 1350 BC and resulted to dynasty’s golden age (Gernet et al, 1996). More written records also found at Anyang prove the existence of Shang Dynasty. However, the western scholars are uncertain to link settlements that are of the same time with Anyang settlement with those of Shang dynasty. The evidence is still inconclusive in verifying how far the Shang dominion extended from Anyang.
Stone Age in India
The history of this nation commenced with prove of human tasks of Homo sapiens as far as seventy five thousand years ago, or with past hominids comprising Homo erectus about half a million years ago (John, 2002). The isolated remnants of Homo erectus in Narmada valley of central India signify that India may have been occupied since the middle Pleistocene era, between 500,000-200,000 years ago (John, 2002). The tools made by proto humans dated back almost two millions years ago were discovered in north-western side of the subcontinent. The primordial history of the section comprise of South Asia’s older settlements and a few of its civilizations (Kenoyer, 1998).
The Mesolithic period among the Indian subcontinent was proceeded by Neolithic period and the first inveterate semi permanent settlements emerged in Bhimbetka rock shelter. Previous Neolithic culture in Southern of Asia is symbolized by the Mehrgarh findings which is current Balochistan in Pakistan. Some traces of Neolithic culture have been suspected to be under water in Gulf of Khambat. Neolithic agriculture customs surfaced in the Indus Valley sector around 5000 BCE spreading from northwards to southwards. The first industrial civilization of this area started with the Indus Valley civilization (Kenoyer, 1998).
From the above statements the theory is an aid to make the political matters from the ancient to modern world be understood, it is impossible to apply it. From the theory we learn that the Chinese historians that existed in later periods were familiar to the concept of one dynasty succeeding the other, the real political case in early china is recognized to have been more complex (Gernet et al, 1996). Some of the Chinese dynasties were political entities that ruled together. Considering this present world that permits democracy among the nations, we can draw a conclusion that, during the existence of dynasties in South and East Asia, there was no value of democracy.
Gernet et al., (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. London. Macmillan & Co.
Kenoyer, J Mark (1998). The Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. New York. Oxford Publishers.
John, M., (2002). The History of India. New York. The Macmillan Publishers.