Cultural influences on development(Name)(Course Name)(Instructor’s Name)(Date Of Submission)
IntroductionHuman being development is shaped by various influences among them culture. Development takes different forms e.g. biological and physiological. Culture refers to the way of life in a social setup. Different cultures exist around the world ranging throughout the different eras of history. Upheld cultures have been passed on to different generations. In passing on these cultures, distortions, dissipation, alterations and inventions have been witnessed.(Ayandele, E.A. 1998)Cultures have been distorted by the generations in a manner that befits the interest of the generations. Some cultures have left out as civilization took shape of people’s lives all across the world. The rise of new cultures has also been noted with innovations and discoveries especially in the new worldIn the new world, cultures rank mainly physiologically as civilized and primitive ones. The medieval and dark ancient cultures thought to be primitive whilst the agrarian, and the 20th century thought to be civilized and perhaps the best for mankind (Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, S. E. 2007)However in making this judgmental ranking we must look at cultures in light of times and conditions prevailing. Before we call the medieval culture primitive, we must perhaps take a keen look at the issues prevalent at those times.Human development ideas note the biological development incorporation of common rights and freedom of a human being. This includes right to life, education, food, shelter est. in the development process. This expounds the idea that development is a process and not a single stage. Different process takes place in the development process as shaped by the culture (Berk, L. E. 2009).
The African culture and influences on developmentFor many years, African culture described as primitive or backward culture. However, care must be taken before we place this tag on the culture. The African culture upholds best practices on social and human development. In an African culture, pregnant woman gets proper attention and taken care. This form of care includes giving her the best foods, reducing her chores and assigning her a midwife. All this care paves way for the mature development of a born baby. The new born and mother received care even after delivery to ensure sustained well being. Relatives, friends, and neighbors come to assist the family once there is a new born (Kail, R. E. 2006). The culture encouraged breastfeeding and deviation was rebuked by the society. In some African society, a new born baby is blessed by the elders in order to receive him/her to the society. Child bearing is considered a blessing in the culture hence the high birth rates witnessed in the African continent.The culture considered a child’s development a societies’ task. The societies at large meant to shape and mould the personality and destiny of the child. The child’s discipline was instilled as he/she grew. Emphasis was put on elders respect. The old African culture did not allow children to speak while the elders addressed them and were supposed to follow orders issued by them without questioning. Any elderly member of the society had the right to discipline a child without first informing the parents on the matter. This is a culture that is quickly fading away (Jeremy Gould 1976).Initiation in the African culture is also renowned. It takes different forms which includes circumcision. Initiation signifies the passing stage from childhood to adulthood. In societies that practice circumcision they mostly used a standard single blade for all initiates. This explains the high HIV/AIDS prevalence in the 1980s. The art is unhealthy and has been phased out by use of surgical blades and approved health standards due to the emergence of transmitted diseases especially STIs and HIV/AIDS.In marriage and family, the culture is also largely rich in best practices. None is allowed to engage in sex before marriage. A relationship with the opposite sex is dangerous as it paves the way for marriage. This explains the reason why few teenage pregnancies in African cultures as compared to others. Marriage engagement in the society was sacred and protected by the society at large. Dowry was paid as a show of appreciation to the bride’s family. It binds the newlyweds as was considered informative to return the accepted dowry once the marriage fails. Divorce was allowed only one particular instances in the culture e.g. in breakage of marriage vows. In the African culture, it is almost impractical to practice a divorce. This helped the families to remain intact and ensure the children were brought up by both parents. Single parenting was scarce in the African culture during the pre and colonial eras and occurred if one of the parents died. The society would take up the role of parenting in such situations.Wife inheritance was also a practice in some of the African societies. The brother of the deceased person would assume the wife, a culture that was rebuked by many scholars citing impracticality of love transfer. The widow would be forced to marry her brother in law. This was also blamed for the spread of STIs and HIV/AIDS especially in western parts of Kenya and in Uganda.
Western culturesWestern culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle or European civilization, is a term used majorly to refer to a culture of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and artifacts and technologies that have some basis or association with Europe. Western culture is characterized by an abundance of creative, philosophic, literary, and legal themes and traditions; the heritage of Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, and Latin cultural and linguistic groups, as well as Christianity, which played a pivotal part in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century. Also contributing to Western thought, in ancient times and then in the middle Ages and the Renaissance onwards, a tradition of rationalism in various spheres of life, developed by Hellenistic philosophy, Scholasticism, humanism, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. Values of Western culture have, throughout history, been derived from administrative thought, widespread employment of rational argument favoring free thought, assimilation of human rights, the need for equality, and democracy. Western ideologies, political beliefs, western science, western laws and social institutions, western moral concepts, sexual symbols and ideals of beauty, western working methods and leisure activities, western foods, western pop idols and the western concept of human existence have become objectives, examples and norms everywhere in the world.But there are too many dispossessed people who have amassed a few western material possessions but no longer have any birthplace, home or final resting-place.
The ideological profile of cultural imperialism of the westerners.
The ideology of the technological imperialists. To a western person, traditions could be the antithesis regarding dynamics; the idea indicates the actual subjugation regarding dynamics to be able to create a design, man-made globe, to be able to determine the world, the actual acme of which could be the city limits. The particular ideology of the subjugation regarding dynamics has reached its climax from the conquest regarding outer space, nevertheless it has also offered the actual meaningful justification for your white-colored person’s expeditions regarding development, with regard to colonialism, the actual servant deal, the actual deceitful exploitation regarding healthy assets as well as the offshore support ideas regarding today: the purpose of most of these staying to yoke most international locations on the globe of the industrialized countries.The maximization of culture; the ideology of total efficiency: The ideal of the competitive, mass-producing society is usually to achieve entire efficiency. It aims to increase creation, organizational efficiency, art work as well as sports activity.The cult of modernism; the ideology of novelty. Western culture significantly store by the predetermined and regular: it accords their top accolade to the unconventional plus the revolutionary. Western civilization has established the cult of genius for those who are instruments of change. This worship involving modernization plus the faith inside scientific development culminated inside radicalism on the sixties, the actual heyday on the college student, considered a whole new contemporary society may be created with research. On this technological utopia, the actual non-democracy determined solely by traditions like the relationship involving marriage and sex norms would certainly no more exist. Instead continuous development, flexibility, ideal ethical or ideological democracy. But has this development merely led to the dictatorship of the men of change, of the planners?The ideology of productivity. Both equally about the collection along with the actual number of educational selections decide options firstly by materialist financial planning, connected with cost of human resources, of a ‘scientific’ analysis on the relationships in between insight along with productivity. Professional culture is usually currently being converted directly into a plan designed exclusively for the planning connected with production, a new statistical profile, index along with tendency mechanism, from where people, fantastic along with traditional aspects should be removed since uncontrollable factors.International standards; the ideology of the supranational: In manufacturing, scientific disciplines, artwork and any individual activity, European culture realizes no better target than internationalism: the actual specifications with the city maintain swing. The actual modify inside construction regarding European organizations has taken the shape regarding adaptation to showcase economic system, to be able to intercontinental business; the actual result with the environment to be able to intercontinental specifications. The actual techno-structures will be the majority of rigidly consistent off, section of a hygienic and clean, experienced muscle size culture utilizing regular ideals, to achieve steady ‘scientific’ and ‘artistic’ judgments, a society in which personal and immediate answers will be more illusionary than real. Interpersonal planning and organization possess developed consistent modern-day circumstances, the actual fruits of the particular most current research directly into town pattern, in which situation can be played out and about with all the similar cultural props, similar basic providers.The mechanistic system of knowledge and causal relations; the ideology of technical solutions. The functional basis of western society is a classification of the natural world into a cognitive system that only recognizes mechanical, factorial and technical causal connections and solutions. The most important logical model for scientific thought throughout the sixties was factor analysis. The material and human waste problems resulting from the production process are eliminated by means of special mechanisms; a technological waste process grows up side by side with the production process – sewage plants, asylums, approved schools, community homes and police stations. New sicknesses are cured by new medicines; the debilitating effects of mass production and the conveyor belt are solved by the invention of ergonomics. The establishment of counter-technologies, counter-organizations and counter-cultures corrects technological blunders – thus development becomes synonymous with the fragmentation of society into ever smaller and weirder compartments.The opinion industry, the ideology of the control of knowledge: Scientific and technological progresses have also maximized awareness. On the other hand it has made communications, the mass media, manipulation, information shocks, industrial opinion-molding, propaganda and advertising its most important instruments of power and influence. Western society permits any form of manipulation, even if it is systematically biased, as long as its aims are economically beneficial, commercially successful or otherwise increasing. Western man has long accepted the necessity of organizational lies. Berk, L. E. (2009).
Eastern cultural influenceThe eastern culture denotes the cultures practiced by countries east of Europe these include mainly in Asia. The predominant culture is the Chinese Japanese Indian and Arab cultures. Their cultures differ greatly from the western cultures and for a long time there were collisions between the two. These collisions contributed to the break of world wars as nations spread their cultures .the eastern culture is widely described as a conservative one compared to the western. Strict traditions are observed in these societies. The people of these cultures mainly practice Islamism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism Taoism among others. Cultural influences on a human and child developmentThe diverse have an effect how a child develops and the personality they show. The culture which a child is living in contributes to the present situation. As an example, though Western cultures emphasis on individuality, Asian cultures are notable for having a higher combined focusing, and therefore this culture strains the want in the local community as a whole over the needs of each specific. This kind of lifestyle variances may result in outstanding different versions of raising young children. Parents from Western cultures may emphasize the importance of their child having a powerful feeling of self-esteem in addition to self-sufficiency; through parents from Asian cultures may concentration additional on how their child may contribute to the household unit and culture as a whole. No matter what the child’s surrounding culture might be the parental strategies designed to produce children who can meet the goals and expectations of the culture in which they live.Socio-emotional troubled development is by ethnical framework. Lifestyle may encourage regarding restriction this showing regarding distinct issues with socio-emotional development by way of facilitation regarding reductions operations. Social norms as well as values offer information regarding this model as well as evaluate regarding cultural behavior as well as just like providing explanations on the behaviors. Socio-emotional Characteristics in the early years can have implications for the development of social behaviors. ‘Edvard found that children in relatively open communities (e.g. Taira in Ilinawa, one of Japan’s southern) where peer interaction was encouraged had significantly higher scores on overall social engagement than children in more “Close” and agriculture communities (e.g. Nyansongo in Kenyan Khlapur in India)’.During Social interactions, peer evaluate and response to individual characteristics in a way that are relevant with cultural belief systems in their society and express equivalent reaction (e.g. acceptance, rejection) toward children who show the characteristics. Culturally-directed social evaluations and responses, in turn, guide children’s behaviors and essentially their developmental patterns.The child from the rural area might be expected to learn how to help on the family farm and ultimately contribute to the management of the family’s source of food and income. During the early years, this child’s parents might focus on key safety and survival needs such as providing warmth and food. As the child grows older, teaching practical skills and helping the child benefit hands-on experience might become more prominent. Because of the cultural emphasis on ensuring the child’s survival, the goal of youth in this situation is to survive to adulthood in order to become a provider for the family.For the child raised in the urban environment in the affluent country, early life might be significantly different. Because this child’s parents worry less about basic needs, their issue will be more on lifestyle. During the early years, ensuring that the child has the best toys and participates in the first play set might be of the utmost concern. As the child grows older, the parents might change their focus to making sure their child’s enrollment in the most respected schools and attains the best possible grades. In this case, the child’s lifestyle suggests that the ultimate goal of childhood is to go to school, and one day get a prestigious job.Western cultures (Individualism) emphasize on assertiveness, expressiveness, and competitiveness and Eastern and Southern cultures (collectivism) emphasize on group harmony and cooperation.Comparison between the individual characteristics and interaction of western and eastern cultures:1. Personality: European cultures that beliefs assertiveness and also self-reliance views these particular actions as shyness, fearfulness, and also cultural incompetence, in contrast to; Asian traditions sight these actions as submission, obedience and also getting extremely well mannered.Pro-social behavior: (helping, sharing, and caring): Research determined by means of observing amongst peers along with mother or father child conversation which pro-social habits is more frequent amongst kids from eastern culture in comparison with western culture.3. Cooperation/ competition: Normally children coming from collectivism international locations are more cooperative and much less aggressive when compared with westernized international locations, however; co-operation and competition usually vary from an individual to a different and also the new generation seems to be a lot more aggressive within possibly within Collectivism international locations.4. Hostility: Most cultures view physical and oral rage inappropriate and it leads to peer denial in most countries.5. Social withdrawal: Research has found the prevalence of reticent habits will be higher among eastern culture compared to western ethnicities.6: Peer relationships: Acquaintanceship can vary from one culture to another. In most cultures little ones hardly ever take part in non- cultures. Far eastern cultures spend nearly all of time because of their immediate as well as extended family members.7. Play: Asian families tend to recognize child’s play as a subject inside of it rather than a strategy for promoting educational experiences.8. Peer sociability: Expert sociability throughout collectivist societies, which often strain group harmony, differs throughout American ethnicities. (Roopnarince et al., 1994)’.ConclusionWhilst society can participate in major functions with a child up-bringing, it can be even now vital that one does not forget that it is your relationship of influences of which dictates how a child develops. Genetics, environmentally friendly influences, parenting variations, good friends, lecturers, educational institutions and the values most importantly are just some of your key variables of which incorporate with different strategies to figure out some children progress.
ReferencesAyandele, E.A. (1998). African Renaissance: The Cultural Dimension. A paper presented at the symposium on the African Renaissance to celebrate the 80th birthday of President Nelson Mandela.
Berk, L. E. (2009). Child Development. 8th ed. United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc.Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, S. E. (2007). Discovering Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.Kail, R. E. (2006), Children and Their Development (4 ed.), Prentice Hall.Jeremy Gould (1976), ‘Development strategies and ethnic cultures’