Criminology: Articles Summary
Bungay Vicky, Malchy Lesley, Buxton Jane, Johnson Joy, Macpherson Donald and Rosenfeld Theo. “Life with a jib: A snapshot of the street youth’s use of crystal methamphetamine, Addiction Research and Theory, 2006
In the article Life with a Jib, Bungay et al. (p. 235-251) state that there is increased use of crystal methamphetamine (CM) or jib among the Canadian street youths and this is should be a matter of concern. CM is a drug compound that has the ability to stimulate the central nervous system and result to symptoms such as alertness, restlessness, euphoria, and hyper-energetic, insomnia, and loss of appetite for food (Bungay et al., 236). The study findings are aimed in the provision of insight necessary for policy and planning of program for the purpose of providing treatment and support for the street youth involved in the use of jib.
Bungay et al. (p. 238-242) method involves a qualitative study in which street youth in the inner-city were questioned about their use of CM. The information was collected by use of semi-structured interview for 12 youths. Through the analysis of themes, the scope of the study entails the following four aspects, one, the pattern of jib use; two, the reasons for using jib; three, the downside of using jib, and four, management of jib use. These themes revealed the interrelationship between the use of drugs and street involvement as revealed in the discussion and findings.
In the findings and discussion, it is revealed that the prevalence of jib use occur within various youth groups of gender, age and ethnicity. However, the scope of this study is on the street youth whose use is more observed as compared to the rest of the population (Bungay et al., 238). The 12 interviewed youth use it on a daily basis and this started when they were between the ages of 15 and 16. Moreover, majority of the youth interviewed had not used jib until their involvement in the streets. Jib is also considered an alternative drug to other hard drugs such as marijuana and heroin. The street youth use jib in order to stay awake for the purpose of protecting belonging, or be able to move quickly whenever there is need to (Bungay et al., 239). The youth also use jib for the purpose of enhancing social interaction, cope with negative emotions, and as a way of seeking comfort and reassurance, just like what psychiatric services could offer. Jib also helps them to keep off the urge of food when they feel hungry but are unable to get food. The negative side of using jib includes harm to both the physical and mental health, and the youth also face isolation and exploitation (Bungay et al., 239). In jib management it is shown that the youth are knowledgeable about their use of drugs and are capable of creatively adapting to the negative consequences caused by the drug. Another key finding for the study is that social services agencies and health care professionals are not considered as helpful in the management of jib use and its side effects among the street youths.
Bungay et al., (p. 240) conclude that youths are likely to use drugs but the consequence of the use does not reflect the youth’s perceptions of the use. For example, youths use jib to stay awake, yet in reality, they cause damage to their central nervous system. Bungay, et al., implicate the study for social and support agencies to develop interventions that can assist the street youth overcome the potent harm caused by jib use.
Nee, Claire and Ghan Meena. “Expert decision-making in burglars,” International Centre for Research in Forensic Psychology
In the article expert decision-making in burglars, Nee and Ghan relate the act of burglary to the cognitive process. Nee and Ghan state that cognitive play a role in the selection of property at scenes of crime. The study is aimed at providing further information to the academicians and policy makers involved in situational crime prevention. Nee and Ghan asserts that cognitive processing will assist in the speedily and methodically carrying out of tasks, and also in the recognition of relevant cues, and stimuli in an extremely instantaneous manner.
To illustrate the rationale Nee and Ghan generated data from interviews with 50 burglars who were experienced. The scope of the article focuses on aspects such as the initial decision to burgle and selection of the targeted location. It is therefore important for crime prevention agencies to consider the cognitive cues of the burglars when analyzing the location of crime. The findings of the study are aimed towards providing better primary and secondary crime prevention strategies by the crime prevention agencies.
The findings of the study reveal that 45 out of the 50 experienced burglars interviewed had a predictable search pattern. 37 out of the 45 described their searches by using terms that signify expertise, in the automatic handling of their burglary activities.
Nee and Ghan have incorporated several other study findings relevant to burglary and expertise and it shown that there is culture of smartness in the lifestyles of burglars. The type of information processed by burglars such as the choice of target, the level of access, area surveillability, and cues of occupancy determines the ways in which the crime will be performed, and crime prevention agencies should therefore study these patterns in order to come up with prevention strategies. Cognitive processes for situations enable the burglars to make decision as to whether they would enter property through open windows or doors, depending on the vulnerability of the site. Nee and Ghan observe that police novices need to come closer to the burglar expert in the way that the burglars process cues that symbolize target vulnerability. This recommendation results from the aspect that the methods used by novices to identify or defend against burglary do not bode well with ability to bring the burglars to apprehension. Novices should thus renew their efforts in handling burglary. Another notable finding is that re-victimization of locations that experienced burglary is very high as revealed by most studies (Nee and Ghan). The article therefore shows that unless the cognitive process of the burglars is learnt and used against the expert burglars, then the targets will continue experiencing the burglary problems. Nee and Ghan emphasize on the need of the police to alter the usual entrance of crime search in area that have experienced burglary. Moreover, burglars seem to navigate around the properties almost with a virtual automacity. Nee and Ghan notes that crime prevention specialists should also be at par with the high ability of expert burglars to use certain habits and alter them as need be. Nee and Ghan also note that there lacks a connection between the types of goods that the burglars target ad the level of planning for the burglar action. This shows that a lot of attention during planning is focuses on the entrance to the property as opposed to the goods that are targeted. Nee and Ghan suggest that this should also be considered in outlining crime prevention strategies.
Nee and Ghan conclude that the thought process of burglars during sections of the offence procedure may be analogous to those of an expert in any other crime domain, especially in terms of instantaneous recognition of speed, cues, and automaticity.
Paes-Machado, Eduardo and Levenstein Charles, “I’m sorry everybody but this is Brazil: Armed robbery on the buses in Brazilian cities.” The British Journal of Criminology, 2004
In ‘I’m sorry, everybody, but this is Brazil’ Pres-Machado and Levenstein (p.1-14) state that Brazil became one of the countries with the highest incident of violent crime in the Americas and this shocked many Brazilians. To examine the extent of the extent of violence and bribery in Brazil, Pres-Machado and Levenstein focus their study on the Brazilian transport system in high incidences of violent crimes had been reported. Pres-Machado and Levenstein (p.4) argue that criminal acts such as those that occurred in the Salvador bus network aimed to obtain money and valuables from the bus company and passengers and this disturbs the daily functioning of the of the public transport system as well as compromising safety of the people who depend on this facility.
Therefore, the scope of the article is to examine criminal activities in the Brazilian transport sector in which bus robbery is interpreted as a psychological power game that causes financial or property loss, racial tensions and harsh policing. The following key issues are addressed: one, the general condition of the Brazilian public transport-Salvador’s bus network; two, the rates of crime; three, the robbery scripts; four, racial tension, and six, policing tactics.
Pres-Machado and Levenstein (p. 6-11) demonstrate the method used to reach their findings and this involves conducting interviews with 191 people including bus workers, police officials, labor union officials, users, and managers. Additionally, Pres-Machado and Levenstein (p. 7) assert that the study touched on issues of race during the interviews because most of the robbers were black and mulatto youths. Additionally, 88 police records and 26 criminal investigations were examined. The study aimed to come up with information that could assist to curb the rising rate of crimes in public facilities.
The discussion and findings by Pres-Machado and Levenstein (p. 7-10) show that the Salvador’s bus network serves a population of 2 million people and a 710 square kilometer of area. The company also has 2, 400 vehicles that use 424 routes and provide 36 million passenger rides per month. On crime, it is reported that the 20, 572 bus robberies that were analyzed and registered within 10 years, excluded the crimes that bus workers and users experience when getting out of the bus, and this indicate that the crimes could be higher than the ones reported. Therefore, total value of losses would be higher and thus warrant the need for firms to fulfill legal liability by compensating. The nature of robberies included a female perpetrator assisting a group of males to commit the crimes and demographics show that 21 was the mean age of the perpetrators. Some were minors under 18 years of age, who assisted the adults. On ethnicity, 71.6 per cent of bus robbers were mulatto and 28.4 per cent were black while white perpetrators lacked. Most of the offenders were also from extreme poor backgrounds. Harsh policing was used and this resulted from the increased crime activities in early and mid 1990s that left many bus workers dead or injured. Policing strategies included holding campaign rallies that aimed to bring to light the problems in the transport sectors. The firms were asked to remove advertising papers on the back of bus windows and add security gadgets such as alarms.
Paes-Machado and Levenstein (p. 10) conclude that there should be implementation of improved social policies on policing especially those that target the poor and the black-mulatto youths.
Watson, Peter. “If it’s art, it must be fake”. London: New Statesmans, 1996
In the magazine article, if it’s art, it must be fake, Watson (p. 23-24) asserts that art works in the sales stores and show room are high likely to be fake until proven otherwise. Watson (p. 23) argues that the perception that art work is always unreal until proven otherwise results from the publicity given to the Holocaust art. Watson’s article intends to create awareness especially to the public interested in dealing in art works. Watson’s states that as the days go by, art stores continue to get filled by various antiques but very few are original when keenly analyzed.
A vast number of paintings and other objects swivel around the market and the sellers claim that these pieces of artwork were once owned by Jews before they were taken away from them by the Nazis. Moreover, such pieces of art are always introduced on a frequent time basis. The doubt looms over the fact that there lacks data which shows the number of the looted art works by the Jewish and how they are frequently discovered by the Jewish. Another source that questions the originality of the artworks concerns the general realizations that in works involving antiquity, the vast majority of the artworks in the market in New York and London, lack proof of history of origin, where they were found, or where they have been before being discovered by the sales people.
Watson (p. 23) analyzes these claims by observing the claim of Art Loss register in which when the firm started, the chairman commented that there were 25, 000 pieces of stolen arts in the firm’s database and that this increased to 100,000 in a year. However, fakes are apparent considering that there are very few matches to the original pieces of work that were stolen from the Jewish.
Watson (p. 24) observes that most dealers in the art world are reluctant to register their pieces by providing information of the originality and destination of the piece of work. There should be procedures requiring the dealer to state from whom they got the art from and under hose authority are the consignments being made. Nevertheless some auction houses have been urged to uphold the integrity on the usage of historic art by providing provenance for auctioned art pieces. Watson (p. 24) is glad that the public is quickly becoming aware of the proliferation of the fake art business. This is because the numbers of antiquities or stolen arts have started reducing in the shelves of art stores. Watson (p. 24) also believes that the fake business will be put in check if restrictions are intensified in terms of trade, import and export regulations, taxations, and passport. The harder it is made for the dealers to proliferate their business, the less there will be the occurrence of fake art materials, passing for the price of the original. Watson (p. 24) observes that such crimes cost the insurance companies in the UK over 250 million pounds every year and thus should be stopped. Technology can also be used to determine the integrity of the piece of art work through computer checks and analysis although measures should be put to ensure that this is done in integrity. Watson therefore shows that through stricter trade regulations and apprehension of criminals, very few thieves will be discouraged from performing such business and hence reduction of these cases will occur.
Bungay Vicky, Malchy Lesley, Buxton Jane, Johnson Joy, Macpherson Donald and Rosenfeld Theo. “Life with a jib: A snapshot of the street youth’s use of crystal methamphetamine, Addiction Research and Theory, 2006, 14(3): 235-251
Nee, Claire and Ghan Meena. “Expert decision-making in burglars,” International Centre for Research in Forensic Psychology
Paes-Machado, Eduardo and Levenstein Charles. “I’m sorry everybody but this is Brazil: Armed robbery on the buses in Brazilian cities.” The British Journal of Criminology, 2004, 44(1): 1-14
Watson, Peter. “If it’s art, it must be fake”. London: New Statesmans, 1996,130: 23-24