Crime and Deviance






The increasing rates of crime have been a cause for worry and concern in the United States, as well as other parts of the world. Recent times have seen an intense concentration of scholars with providing an explanation of the incidence of crime as is the case for Routine Activity theory. The theory requires the presence of three elements for the occurrence of crime. First, there must be a motivated offender who has criminal intentions, as well as the capacity to act on that inclination. Second, there should be an appropriate target or victim. Third, a capable guardian with the capacity to prevent the occurrence of the crime would be absent. However, this theory has over time been modified through the inclusion of the fourth component, which is the absence or existence of a handler. The handler component involves a two step-process where, social bonds would be developed in the society, and, an individual related to a potential offender controls the individual to adhere to social bonds.

As concerning rape, Shannon cautioned against reducing crime to a product of crime as that would that would legitimize the crime while discrediting the victims, thereby making it inevitable.

Shoplifters may neutralize their guilt by denying their responsibility in the act, denying having caused any injury or harm to any individual, denying the victim and justifying the action as a retaliation, condemning the condemners, appealing to higher loyalties, defining the behavior as common, and defending the act as having been necessary, or justifying the action by comparing it with other serious crimes, as well as postponing the thought of the actions.

The tobacco industry may be seen as a deviant actor, as it continues advertising its products while ignoring the harmful effects that it has on individual health of active and passive smokers. Some examples of deviance in the food industry include deception as to the components of their products, and excessive use of additives.