Creative thinking in general

Creative thinking in general

Creative thinking is the formation of possible solutions to a problem or possible explanation of a phenomenon. It is that that produces the material that critical thinking assesses. It entails coming up with concepts that did not exist before, either as a product, a process or a thought or working on the old with intentions of harmonizing it.

Creative people are usually dynamic, resourceful, independent and smart thinkers. These traits enable them to handle problems in unacceptable situations that challenge rational without having any seeming ready way out.


It is the evidential relation between premises and inferences. Reasoning moves from proposition (premise) and establishes a deduction.

Reasoning is of two kinds: deductive and inductive reasoning.

A deductive argument is valid when its premises, if true, deliver adequate grounds for its inference. The task of deductive logic is to elucidate the nature of the relation amid premises and conclusions in valid arguments and thus to enable us to discriminate valid or invalid arguments. An inductive argument, on the other hand, embroils the assertion, not that its premises gives definite grounds for the truth of its inference, but only that it affords some grounds for it.

Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, involves inferences merely in a degree of likelihood because they are not rationally certain by the premises or the evidence. To that extent, new knowledge is established on the basis of the premises of evidence, though such knowledge does not follow logical requisite but mere logical probability.

Methods used in creative thinking

Socratic Method

This model persistently prompts into the subject with questions. It is a safe assuasive method. It entails following up of answers with additional questions through selection of questions which advance the discussions. This enables a person to think in a disciplined logical manner, helping the person by posing facilitative questions

Rene Descartes Methodic Doubt

Descartes’ objective was to discover what, if anything is truly certain. Like his predecessors, he maintained that knowledge and certainty of truth go hand in hand. The principles of his methodic doubt state that no proposition should be held true. However there are exceptions to his rules: those that are so obvious and unambiguous that they cannot be suspected so long as a person is thinking attentively; those which certainty is to be achieved through making sure, as in mathematically proven that knowledge has the form of a deductively valid reasoning.

He describes the ideal technique through which we can obtain clear and distinct ideas: accepting nothing as true if it is not clear and definitely recognized as it is; divide up and evaluate the difficulties into as many simpler portions as necessary; progress from simple and easy knowledge to a more compound and related objects; assess the field thoroughly; revisit the exercise to ensure there is no omission.

John Stuart Mill – Liberty (Individuality)

He pursues to create the extent to which the societal or governmental intrusion into the life of an individual is vindicated. He established the Harm rule-the interest of the majority of the society is prioritized. The society or the government is only required to request the opinion of the majority in the society. J.S Mill holds that the sovereignty is vested in the people so as to check the oppression of the minority over the majority in the society. It is only in the circumstances where the view of the marginal would have a harm result on the majority is the government or society justified in interfering with their opinions and interests.

Truth can be held in two ways: rigidly with a closed mind ruling out any likelihood of change or with an open mind allowing opportunity of change. If held with an open mind, there will be a chance of criticism which permits us to identify the faults in the truth, thus aiding us perfect it in the identification of the definite truth.

Bertrand Russell – Appearance and Reality

This model is about sense insight and first impressions. First impressions can regularly be illusory, for instance, a rod when immersed in water appears to be bent due to refraction.


Intellectual humility

The other party’s opinion ought to be considered. He/she should be preparedand willing to incorporate ideas from the other person after proper evaluation.

Intellectual empathy

This implies creatively putting one in the place of others to sincerely understand them, thus resisting the egocentric propensity to identify truth and reality entirely with one’s discernments and understanding.

Intellectual integrity

This is the consciousness of the need to be faithful to one’s own rational and honesty in acknowledging assistance from other sources.

Intellectual standards

These are the principles by which proper reasoning and understanding can be assessed such as clarity, accuracy, relevance, precision, depth, breadth significance, and consistency.


 This is the reasoning that empowers one to choose the alternative or decision that yields the utmost value.

Theoretical analysis of creative thinking


This is the theory of knowledge. It attempts to answer: The scope to which knowledge is possible; means by which knowledge is achieved; standard of knowledge / truth of knowledge. Some philosophers believed knowledge is relative whereas others believed it is certain. Forms of knowledge remain the same but differ in actualization, for example, mango and coconut trees are both trees. Others argued that certain knowledge can only be achieved through the realm of the mind; insight can be deceptive depending on one’s view.

There are three schools of thought:

Coherence theory

Coherence is used as a measure to determine truth. It is held as true if it is coherent. Coherence entails uniformity among the parts establishing it.

Correspondence theory

Correspondence affirms that what is in the mind must resemble to the reality.

Pragmatic theory

The truth is that which is functional.


This is the thought about thought.It is the science and art of reasoning. Logic targets to secure clearness in the definition and organization of our ideas and other mental images, constancy in our judgment and rationality in our process of interpretation. It is the study of the means and principles used to differentiate correct from incorrect rationalism.

Syllogism is two premised arguments in logic (all birds are reptiles; all reptiles are amphibians; all birds are amphibians) conclusion is justified by logic, i.e. the connection between premises hence assumption is accurate resulting in valid logical arguments


It is the study of the first principles of reality, which also means being the study of reality beyond the physical metaphysics. It is the study of the essences past the physical entities. Metaphysics is linked with several philosophical matters: existence of God; personal identity; mind-body problem; the problem of free will.


Caloundra and Buderim U3A Creative Writing Groups. (1989). Creative writing. Caloundra, Qld: Caloundra & Buderim U3A Creative Writing Groups.

Mills, M., & Underhill, M. (1992). Creative writing. Dunstable, England: Folens.

Mueller, L., & Reynolds, J. D. (1990). Creative writing. Lincolnwood, Ill., USA: National Textbook Co.