Counterterrorism Activities and Programs in Aviation Security
Counterterrorism Activities and Programs in Aviation Security
1. Research Hypothesis: Since the 9/11 terrorist attack, aviation security has been augmented through efficient counter-terrorism activities and programs
2. Research Variables
Notably, the variables shall touch on the three basic parameters of the research hypothesis, which are, terrorism, aviation security, and efficient counter-terrorism activities. Therefore, the main variables of the research would be:
Patterns or characteristics of behavior of the 9/11 terrorist attack
The safety of aviation services
The three variables should provide the information qualitatively and quantitatively on the rise, decline, trend, and counter-measures concerning the 9/11 terrorism.
Patterns or characteristics of behavior of 9/11 terrorism attack-the variable helps to give the concept of the rise that is, it is a descriptive variable on the nature of the terrorism and its afflictions. It is measured by the damages that the terror caused.
The safety of the aviation passengers-this could be viewed as a pointer of how the airline passengers perceive their safely. Analogically, the variable can be measured by the number of flight passengers, their security confidence, safe take-offs and landing amongst others.
Prosecutorial successes –the variable is an indicator of the measures in place to counter the security threats, and the successes that come with them. As such, the idea of efficient counter-terrorism program can be analyzed.
4. Measurement of the Variables
Descriptively, the pattern or nature of the 9/11 terrorism can be measured by considering facets such as unemployment, GDP per capita, poverty, inequality, political rights, literacy level, and inflation. The parameters are highly affected by terrorism. However, all the factors must be related to aviation services.
The safety of flight passengers will be measured using the concept of the number of aviation fatalities related to terrorism per unit travel. Empirically, this calls for information on passengers per trip, flight miles, flight legs, and safety in take-offs and landing.
Prosecutorial successes in aviation security are used to determine the efficiency of the program used. Thus, it can be measured through the percentage of screening programs, legal provisions on counterterrorism, and intelligence services to counter terrorism.
Atkinson, M. P., & Wein, L. M. (2010). An Overlapping Networks Approach to Resource Allocation for Domestic Counterterrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(7), 618-651. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2010.484028. From http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
Atkinson and Wein’s article provides a logical mechanism that security agents should use in relating terror and crime to intervention measures. In particular, the article will help the research in the formulation and solution of resource allocation problems using overlapping networks. Therefore, it informs the study on the interdiction mechanisms that counterterrorism strategies should adopt so as to ensure a proactive measure. In addition, the article frames a sequential notion of investigation in the case of terror, which is essential in recommending appropriate prosecutorial measure.
Byrne, D., & Roy, A. (2015). Improving the safety, capacity and efficiency of airport traffic management with AeroMACS. Journal of Airport Management, 9(1), 36-43. From http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
The article does well by touching on issues concerning management of the airport in terms of planning, operations, and training of the human resource. Notably, Byrne and Roy’s literature acts as supporting evidence for the claim of the study that, aviation security is dependent on the management of the airport. Therefore, the article serves as a concrete backup material for evaluating the relationship of the aviation security to airport management. Also, the acclaimed authors approach the management in a composite notion that entails multiple facets; each of them being integral for security interventions.
Lum, C., Kennedy, L., & Sherley, A. (2006). A Campbell Systematic Review. The Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorism Strategies, 2-36. From http://www.rutgerscps.org/publications/Lum_Terrorism_Review.pdf
This article is valuable because of the content and due to the reputation of the authors. Surely, (Lum et. al, 2006) will contribute immensely to the conceptualization of terrorism and supporting the idea of countering the menace. That is not all; the primary objective of the research is to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of counterterrorism strategies. As such, the evaluation will guide the research on how to strategize on the on the actions and to reach an efficient model of counterterrorism. In addition, it gives the limelight to all the entities involved in the formulation and implementation of counterterrorism strategies.
Jones, K. C., & Glisson, L. M. (2009). HOMELAND SECURITY VS. CABOTAGE: ISSUES OF TERRORISM OR PLOYS. Journal of Transportation Management, 20(1), 35-47. From http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
Undoubtedly, the article does a remarkable work by reviewing how the 9/11 terrorism happened and the tactic that US adopted to counter the Islamist-inspired terrorists. In addition, it provides the chronological aspect of changes that have happened up to now in the Obama’s administration. For example, it outlines the progress in the domestic security such as Disaster Declaration, border security, immigration policy, committee intervention, and transport security systems. In sum, (Jones & Glisson, 2009) informs the study of all the transformations that are in place since the 9/11 terror.
Bloch-Elkon, Y. (2011). The Polls—Trends: Public Perceptions and the Threat of International Terrorism after 9/11. Public Opinion Quarterly, 75(2), 366-392. From http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
Importantly, this article gives various reports concerning the opinions or perceptions of the American people about terrorism. The point of reference of the polls is the 9/11 terror; therefore, the article gives a supporting information of what people underwent, and the changes they have been noticed. Also, the literature provides the idea about the methodology that this research needs to adopt. Clearly, Bloch-Elkon’s work is very crucial for the study in analyzing and evaluating the changes in security; particularly aviation terrors and making a follow up of the real trend of terror attacks.
Eller, W. S., & Gerber, B. J. (2010). Contemplating the Role of Precision and Range in Homeland Security Policy Analysis: A Response to Mueller. Policy Studies Journal, 38(1), 23-39. From http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
Eller & Gerber, (2010) critically addresses the gaps that exist in the US homeland security and the reason behind the situation. But more importantly, the article uses a unique approach as a quest to fill the security gap. Security policy analysis as the approach is essential in this study so as to modulate on how to decide on the effective and efficient counterterrorism strategies. The authors make clarity to the previous work of Mueller and ascertain that in order to counter terrorism, a holistic view in necessary. It recommends that all hazard management and control systems should integrate their efforts to stop terrorism. Indeed the information is inevitably worth for the research.
ZUREICK, A. (2012). The 9/11 Effect: Comparative Counter-Terrorism. 45(1), 385-390. From http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
The article comprehensively looks at the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attack to humanity, nature, and property. As such, it assesses all the damages and the subsequent responses that have been on the course. Therefore, the article helps the research in looking at how terror causes damage and the plausible proactive and reactive interventions that needed to halt terrorism. In addition, it provides the comparative approach of the parties and systems involved in combating terror.
United Nations, (2012). United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy: Activities of the United Nations system in implementing the Strategy. The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 3-75. From http://www.un.org/en/terrorism/ctitf/pdfs/A%2066%20762%20English.pdf
The article is undoubtedly important in answering the research questions of this study; particular because it shows all the steps that world nations have taken to counter the terrorism. Notably, The UN Security Committee and General Assembly in conjunction with experts produced the article so as to show how terrorism inflicts pain and a lot of suffering to the humanity. In essence, the literature will help in giving the information about the global perspective of terrorism. Of interest, the article outlines the specific activities and a new phase of the approach that the UN system has put up against terrorism.
Atkinson, M. P., & Wein, L. M. (2010). An Overlapping Networks Approach to Resource Allocation for Domestic Counterterrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(7), 618-651.
Bloch-Elkon, Y. (2011). The Polls—Trends: Public Perceptions and the Threat of International Terrorism after 9/11. Public Opinion Quarterly, 75(2), 366-392.
Byrne, D., & Roy, A. (2015). Improving the safety, capacity and efficiency of airport traffic management with AeroMACS. Journal of Airport Management, 9(1), 36-43.
Eller, W. S., & Gerber, B. J. (2010). Contemplating the Role of Precision and Range in Homeland Security Policy Analysis: A Response to Mueller. Policy Studies Journal, 38(1), 23-39.
Jones, K. C., & Glisson, L. M. (2009). HOMELAND SECURITY VS. CABOTAGE: ISSUES OF TERRORISM OR PLOYS. Journal of Transportation Management, 20(1), 35-47.
Lum, C., Kennedy, L., & Sherley, A. (2006). A Campbell Systematic Review. The Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorism Strategies, 2-36.
United Nations, (2012). United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy: Activities of the United Nations system in implementing the Strategy. The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 3-75.
ZUREICK, A. (2012). The 9/11 Effect: Comparative Counter-Terrorism. 45(1), 385-390.