Childhood obesity is becoming a severe threat.

Childhood Obesity NameSchoolCourse ProfessorDate

Childhood Obesity 

Childhood obesity is becoming a severe threat. Over 14 million children are estimated to be affected by childhood obesity, accounting for the prevalence rate of 19.3%. The prevalence rate of 13.4% among children between the ages of 2 and 5 emphasizes how childhood obesity can become a significant issue compromising the country’s children’s well-being (Anderson et al., 2019). Additionally, childhood obesity serves as a risk factor that can contribute to other medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes in the future. An extrapolation of the current situation depicts how childhood obesity can increase liability. As a result, the health care system can be jeopardized since substantial resources are used to manage childhood obesity without allocation to other medical conditions. Throughout the years, numerous initiatives have been launched aimed at combating childhood obesity. The repercussions of childhood obesity mandate evaluating “The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine” program to comprehend efficacy.

Background

Notably, the program mentioned above is dedicated to combating childhood obesity. The program will be implemented at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York to provide valuable information and instill healthy eating habits among children. The program’s fundamental themes include innovation and creativity, contributing to the application of technological advancement (Duran et al., 2021). Consequently, online meeting platforms such as Zoom will combat childhood obesity while also promoting healthy eating habits. The program will entail the creation of zoom classes. Children can join the meeting from 5:00 p.m. after completing their academic classes. The program will run from September 20 to November 1, 2021, and will include six sessions. It is worth noting that October 11 will be excluded from the schedule (Weill Cornell Medicine, 2021). The rationale for utilizing zoom technology is to ensure accuracy during program evaluation. With the need to better understand the situation, a large number of respondents will be included. Zoom meetings will be beneficial in ensuring that all respondents participate fully. Similarly, zoom technology accounts for people living in various areas. Hence, the approach is the most cost-effective because it eliminates the need for respondents to provide feedback on their perceptions of the implemented program physically. The program’s guiding mission statement assures comprehensive medical care in the future. As a result, a dynamic process is included in the program. The program encompasses activities such as providing care, discovering, and teaching. It is worth noting that the program benefits the facility as well, as it is consistent with the objective of self-care promotion as a preventative measure within the community. In this context, the facility has invested in integrating community members in medical solutions.

Thus, the program will be instrumental in advancing the self-care campaign in the community. As mentioned previously, the program’s primary goal is to decrease childhood obesity rates in the United States. The program aims to impart helpful knowledge among children capable of acquiring the information necessary to promote healthy eating (Weill Cornell Medicine, 2021). Similarly, extensive information will be provided on preparing nourishing foods and choosing an appropriate diet to reduce the likelihood of childhood obesity. Additionally, the project’s dynamic approach envisions emphasizing the importance of physical activity and teaching children how to evaluate the nutritional content of foods purchased in supermarkets. The targeted population of the program is diverse, composed of children, members of the family, and caregivers. This rationale is based on the fact that the targeted population actively participates in food preparation and purchase. Therefore, it is critical to provide necessary information and knowledge that can aid in preventing childhood obesity.

From a different angle, the evaluation of programs is a critical component. Program evaluation provides an opportunity to determine whether or not the established goals and objectives are being met through implemented initiatives. Consequently, involved stakeholders can identify points of weaknesses where updates should be implemented. As a result, the assessment increases the effectiveness of the decision-making process as it enables the implementation of therapeutic strategies if the set of activities are not met (Mayne, 2020). Program evaluation is also critical for managing costs during the project. Critical planning and strategy are essential to avoid resource loss. Assessment of the project guarantees that the available resources are being utilized effectively and that the utility is being increased to stakeholders involved: parents. As stated previously, the program’s objective is to partake in a dynamic approach to implementing initiatives. Thus, it would be possible to comprehend both effective and ineffective components through the assessment. Project evaluation can also ensure the program’s objectivity while reducing childhood obesity throughout the country (Mayne, 2020). Additionally, it is critical to note that the novel programs frequently contain multiple instances of inefficiency. However, through program evaluation, it is possible to identify areas for improvement, increasing future efficacy in the fight against childhood obesity. Similarly, the importance of program evaluation cannot be overstated. It stems from the belief that lifestyle is a significant factor in childhood obesity. As a result, the assessment will determine whether implemented initiatives result in a lifestyle change, with children adopting healthier eating habits and physical activity.

Stakeholders and Stakeholder Roles

Leadership is critical to the project’s success. The registered dietitian and pediatric endocrinologist will provide valuable guidance during the project’s evaluation. This rationale is based on the fact that the two professionals possess extensive knowledge of children’s nutritional needs and how the information can be used to create and implement initiatives to promote healthy eating habits and physical activity (Papamichael et al., 2021). The internal stakeholders involved in evaluating the project include medical researchers and data analysts who will collect and present derived from the respondents. Thus the two groups of individuals will focus on data collection and analysis to determine the program’s success. Parents, caregivers, and children will be external stakeholders who will provide vital information explaining lifestyle choices. Decisively, children will be the primary beneficiaries of the project as they come to understand the relationship between lifestyle factors and childhood obesity. As a result, students can take a more proactive role in lifestyle management and incorporating healthy habits to help prevent childhood obesity. Parents and caregivers will also benefit from the project by understanding healthy eating habits that they should encourage among children. Similarly, the evaluation of the project will help the medical profession by providing supporting literature on promoting more nutritious eating habits in the community. In the long run, the project will improve the health status of the community by preventing the condition. Thus, the project is likely to address childhood obesity, which has reached epidemic proportions in the country.

Literature Review

In “The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine,” the focus is on managing weight and obesity through structured initiatives anchored on evidence-based practices. It requires assessing the relevant literature for feasibility. The focus is on how the evidence-based interventions can be part of the sustainable initiatives to advance the core deliverables of the project (Weill Cornell Medicine, n.d). As mentioned, innovation and technology are fundamental parts of the system, making it crucial in defining the project’s outcomes. Cardel et al. (2020) observed that the objective is to ensure that the activities and frameworks are consistent with the practices and research conducted in the field related to obesity and the associated health risk factors. Therefore, the study focuses on the available literature and how it defines the core elements of sustainable outcomes, including the measures to improve the children and teenagers’ wellbeing through “The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine.”

An integral part of the program is subjecting teens and children to healthy eating initiatives that include evidence-based interventions. In this regard, the project underlines the relevance of eating healthy through a balanced diet. This aspect includes prioritizing vegetables and fruits and limiting the use of sweetened beverages and drinks. As pointed in Kebbe et al. (2020), the objective is to define the importance of eating or avoiding certain foods to control the weight of the kids and teens through the program’s core deliverables. Moreover, healthy eating entails highlighting the need to avoid junk foods such as fast food, snacks, and other sugary products. Moreover, there is a need to highlight communication about diet, which entails consulting the relevant experts and professionals on how the dietary perspective can solve obesity and weight issues (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Children are also introduced to family dynamics, including eating the right portion of food to make it possible to advance the long-term needs and goals.

At times, “The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine” can include physical activities that are meant to maintain a healthy weight for children. Martin et al. (2018) found that physical activity is part of a scientifically proven intervention that enhances burning calories and strengthens the muscles that improve the children’s mental and physical health. Thus, Cardel et al. (2020) asserted that instilling these practices and values at childhood can help improve the adolescent and early adulthood lifestyle. Therefore, it is crucial to introduce and teach the children the practices that define their relevance and importance to society through such interventions as lifestyle changes modeled around physical, emotional, and mental health and wellbeing.

Parents and other stakeholders have a role in shaping the program’s needs, goals, and expectations. They need to have active roles and influence in defining the essence of management practices to achieve the set goals and objectives. For instance, children must be inducted into limited TV and internet browsing timeline. Weill Cornell Medicine (n.d) determined that emphasis should be on the specific activities, rather than mere exercise, which has objectives for the individual learners. The parents and other stakeholders in the project should understand the activities that each child likes or associate with and use such models, as cited in Martin et al. (2018). These frameworks make it possible to advance the long-term implications and ensure that the outcomes are realized.

In essence, overweight and obesity management practices through “The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine” can benefit from the published literature with evidence-based models. The information from these sources underlines the frameworks for sustainable models that influence the study’s outcomes’ core mechanisms. The program will benefit from the articulate interventions that advance knowledge transfer on the self-care and evidence-based perspectives to realize the core deliverables.

Program Logic Model

The general idea of the program logic model is to illustrate the intersection of different components. Relevance is undeniable considering the impact of the interconnectedness of inputs, the activities undertaken, and the outcomes emanating from such output. For instance, without the corresponding staff for specific duties such as nursing and cooking activities, healthy eating and manageable weight are some of the issues that will be compromised. The holistic nature of the program logic model is equally instrumental because it gives an overview of various stakeholders’ budgetary funding and unique undertakings.

An overview of the model ascertains the need for planning to give the short, medium, and long-term goals and objectives. These frameworks mean society can sharpen its discretions and elements within the necessary weight loss programs through “The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine” program. The focus is on how the various strategies of this program are modeled to achieve the set goals and objectives and instill the relevant evidence-based goals. The activities, processes, and evaluation programs are meant to instill the appropriate components and aspects. In this regard, the focus is on the management practices that shape the views and discourse of the community that targets obese children. The model underlines the roles of each of the parties involved based on the inputs, outputs, and outcomes through the distinct activities. The stakeholders such as clinicians, nurses, dieticians, and therapists have to develop the necessary frameworks that define the long-term engagement practices to achieve its core deliverables.

 In essence, “The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine” contains various activities that are relevant to the subject of obesity and weight loss. Weight loss and obesity management interventions create the necessary model for facilitating the implications and frameworks. Moreover, each activity and stakeholder impact the subjects on the distinct weight management practices. These frameworks make it possible for the strategic evaluation and critical analysis of the outcomes to make it possible to manage weight and obesity among children and teenagers. The model has a specificity of tasks, inputs, and outcomes within the various time ranges. These concepts shape the understanding of the processes and perspectives that are relevant to the weight loss initiatives. Moreover, it is crucial to define the responsibilities of each stakeholder or professional and understand how it impacts obesity management practices.

Program Evaluation Design, Methods, Data Collection, And Data Analysis

As an educative program, as opposed to medical intervention, the primary assessment would involve evaluating the participants’ attitudes and adoption of suggested practices. Thus, the best evaluation method would be using an online survey on the institution’s website. Notably, parents and their children attend the seminars voluntarily, making it difficult to estimate the number of participants in the program or those who will respond to the assessment approach employed. However, a link provided after each session would allow them to answer questions specifically designed to determine the benefits of the intervention. This approach will use the participants’ willingness to contribute to the program’s improvement to collect relevant data on their perception of the sessions. According to Shams and Dehghani (2015), participants who have a positive attitude towards a program are more likely to implement the suggestions it provides. Therefore, it may be vital to adjust the intervention to maximize positive reception, which would improve its effects in promoting behavioral change among parents and children attending the session.

Concerning this observation, the survey will employ questionnaires with both open-ended and closed questions. Nonetheless, each one has to be direct and easy to answer. According to Dewaele (2018), placing ambiguous questions in a questionnaire will likely confuse the participants, undermining the ability to collect uniform responses suitable for a comprehensive assessment during analysis. Besides, these questions should avoid promoting bias or be provocative. Eventually, the survey has to draw uniform responses instead of guiding the participants’ attitudes. Furthermore, given that the study will employ an unpaid survey, it would be vital to minimize any barriers undermining the participants’ willingness to participate. According to Dewaele (2018), individuals are less likely to respond to an item if they find it pretentious, complicated, provocative, or full of mistakes. Therefore, each survey should go through critical assessments to determine their ability to collect the desired information. Notably, the research will employ a questionnaire based on personal clinical experiences.

The survey will only be available after the session. Besides, the individuals will not receive any notification before the program regarding the questions or their intention. This move aims to ensure that there would be some questions to answer after each session does not interfere with their responses afterward. This aspect improves the internal consistency of the survey. Besides, the researcher will develop questionnaires critically, involving several steps of assessing each question’s viability and the items’ organization to ensure that they bear the required impacts. Applying professionals to help critically assess a questionnaire minimizes the likelihood of making mistakes, preserving the survey’s internal validity (Trakman et al., 2017). However, consent is a vital part of any study, necessitating that the researcher ensures all participants agree to the data collection before the research commences (Biros, 2018). Therefore, everyone who registers for the program must read and sign an informed consent form beforehand. The documents will only be available to parents since they have the legal capacity to provide permission. According to Harriss et al. (2017), any study that may involve minors necessitates that their parents or legal guardians consent to their participation. This move aligns with ethical research principles in any field, not just healthcare.

The survey’s mix of open-ended and closed questions will allow the findings to employ both thematic and statistical methods to interpret the results. A vital part of the closed-ended elements will be Likert scales that assess participants’ attitudes based on discreet magnitudes that are easy to represent numerically and graphically. This information would be relevant in determining averages and standard deviations that would later be used for statistical assessments. A Likert scale helps to transform otherwise opinionated responses into numerical form for statistical analysis (Chyung et al., 2017). For instance, the survey will assess the participants’ perception of the sessions’ helpfulness using magnitudes specified by the scale. In addition, response scales allow researchers to evaluate any changes in attitude after every session and graph the findings for easier graphical review. On the other hand, thematic analysis is suitable for difficult content to quantify (Kiger & Varpio, 2020). For instance, the study will ask what the participants found challenging about the survey. Assessing the responses and grouping them into themes will allow for a better understanding of what to change in the program to make it more effective.

The analysis results will be critical for determining what to improve about the program. The first is the number of participants attending the sessions. A steep decline in attendance will imply that people do not find it helpful. Thus, changing the sessions according to what the participants mentioned in the survey could facilitate better responses. This element will also depend on the attendees’ answer to whether they find the program helpful. An increase in negative comments will mean that the sessions need remaking. Lastly, the study will draw information on the participants’ perceptions of the program’s difficulty level. Increased complaints would imply that there is an issue with the sessions, necessitating change. 

The proposed time for the completion of the project will be 12 months. The timeline for different activities to be performed along with their proposed times are presented in table 3 and assumes the form of a Gantt chart. This chart is effective in presenting processes in a timeline that gives a clear visual impression of how the different activities will be completed (Royse, Thyer & Padgett, 2016). Activities that come one after the other and those that overlap and can be completed together, are some of the key elements of the timeline that are visible in the chart. In the program evaluation, the leader will be a student who is working on this project. However, while the program is in operation, the head of Weill Cornell medicine takes lead.

In addition to the timeline, a budget will also help to evaluate the program’s cost before execution. The budget for this program is presented in table 4. Based on the student researcher’s evaluation, the main costs of the project will emanate from expert charge and staffing needed for the project. Since the program is already present, and the facility on which the experiment is conducted is a key stakeholder in this project, which means there will no charge for carrying out the project on their facility and database. However, an extra cost on staff needed to carry out the project is indicated in table 4. To make effective the project, there is a need to have the staff working at the facility still help in the project (Royse, Thyer & Padgett, 2016). As such, without adding new staff to the facility or if need be can be added from the estimation of the facility’s director. The time the staff gets involved in working on the new project can be estimated in terms of the hours during the working time that the staff has to work on this study’s tasks. Accounting for cost can be done as a percentage of the employees’ remuneration and multiplying this value to the staff’s compensation. This estimate yields the cost of conducting the experiment in terms of labor.

An important measure in research and especially one that has gained momentum in recent years is an ethical consideration. This is important especially for projects using human subjects. While humans are not used directly in this study as subjects, the outcome of this study will be used on human subjects. In other words, humans are secondary subjects of this program. As a result, the research should be subjected to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) to establish whether the program affects or has the potential to affect users in a manner that raises ethical questions (Kim, 2012). Besides, the program will be using and storing users’ data. As such, the program needs to be reviewed on whether it protects its users’ rights to privacy and confidentiality. Another concern would be whether the researchers if using user data have an ethical requirement to seek consent in the subjects before use of their data.

An additional issue to ethics is the culture of the subjects in use. In this case, the program evaluates obesity in children. Children as a culture are considered a special subject in research. The main issue regards their consent. In essence, the question that should be answered in this study is whether if any consent is needed, who will give consent. This is important especially important so that an adult in charge of the child does not feel their children should not have been input into the researcher without their consent (Kim, 2012). Further, children underage, more so in childhood have no capacity to give their consent for many things including research. With regard to this small culture, sensitivity must be applied not to cause legal or ethical issues. one must be sensitive to children’s young age who may be vulnerable to coercion and vulnerability. Further, the program should be careful not to harm obese children who are already subjects of bullying in school due to their weight.

Conclusion

Weill Cornel Medicine is one of the key institutions dedicated to tackling weight problems in its general goal of keeping the community healthy. The facility believes that weight problems may develop and extend to affect more than just physical health but also mental health. The Kids and Teens Weight Program at Weill Cornell Medicine proves as one of the active ways the facility helps in evaluation and managing obesity issues for children. This study provides an evaluation for this program. Key interests in this evaluation include the strengths of this program in dealing with health issues, further, this study also seeks to unveil some of the weaknesses in this program. Besides, key elements into the program’s effective and non-effective uses are considered. To ensure that the program is ready for evaluation or experiment, the study evaluates related literature that helps in guiding information on program evaluation. Lastly, a budget created attempts to assess opportunities for improving this program. Cost analysis and the timeline for implementation of the project are made, which gives in totality, a complete view of the project.

References

Anderson, P. M., Butcher, K. F., & Schanzenbach, D. W. (2019). Understanding recent trends in childhood obesity in the United States. Economics & Human Biology, 34, 16-25. HYPERLINK “https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2019.02.002” https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2019.02.002

Biros, M. (2018). Capacity, vulnerability, and informed consent for research. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 46(1), 72-78. doi:10.1177/1073110518766021 

 Cardel, M. I., Atkinson, M. A., Taveras, E. M., Holm, J. C., & Kelly, A. S. (2020). Obesity treatment among adolescents: a review of current evidence and future directions. JAMA Pediatrics, 174(6), 609-617. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0085.

Chyung, S. Y., Roberts, K., Swanson, I., & Hankinson, A. (2017). Evidence‐based survey design: The use of a midpoint on the Likert scale. Performance Improvement, 56(10), 15-23. doi:10.1002/pfi.21727 

Dewaele, J. M. (2018). Online questionnaires. In The Palgrave handbook of applied linguistics research methodology (pp. 269-286). Palgrave Macmillan, London. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-59900-1_13 

Duran, A. C., Mialon, M., Crosbie, E., Jensen, M. L., Harris, J. L., Batis, C., … & Taillie, L. S. (2021). Food environment solutions for childhood obesity in Latin America and among Latinos living in the United States. Obesity Reviews, 22, e13237. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13237

Harriss, D. J., MacSween, A., & Atkinson, G. (2017). Standards for ethics in sport and exercise science research: 2018 update. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(14), 1126-1131. doi:10.1055/s-0043-124001 

Kebbe, M., Perez, A., Buchholz, A., Scott, S. D., McHugh, T. L., Dyson, M. P., & Ball, G. D. C. (2020). Health care providers’ weight management practices for adolescent obesity and alignment with clinical practice guidelines: a multicenter, qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05702-8

Kiger, M. E., & Varpio, L. (2020). Thematic analysis of qualitative data: AMEE Guide No. 131. Medical Teacher, 42(8), 846-854. doi:10.1080/0142159x.2020.1755030

Kim, W. O. (2012). Institutional review board (IRB) and ethical issues in clinical research. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 62(1), 3. https://doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.62.1.3

Martin, A., Booth, J. N., Laird, Y., Sproule, J., Reilly, J. J., & Saunders, D. H. (2018). Physical activity, diet, and other behavioral interventions improve cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009728.pub3.

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Childhood Obesity. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseasesconditions/childhood-obesity/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354833

Mayne, J. (2020). Sustainability Analysis of Intervention Benefits: A Theory of Change Approach. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 35(2).

Papamichael, M. M., Moschonis, G., Mavrogianni, C., Liatris, S., Makrilakis, K., Cardon, G., & Feel4Diabetes‐Study Group. (2021). Fathers’ daily intake of fruit and vegetables is positively associated with children’s fruit and vegetable consumption patterns in Europe: The Feel4Diabetes Study. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. HYPERLINK “https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12945” https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12945

Royse, D., Thyer, B. A., & Padgett, D. K. (2016). Program Evaluation: An Introduction to an Evidence-Based Approach (6th ed.).  Cengage Learning.

Shams, B., & Dehghani, M. (2015). Does attitude hinder or help selecting evaluation questions?. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 20(6), 590–594. doi: 10.4103/1735-1995.165968

Trakman, G. L., Forsyth, A., Hoye, R., & Belski, R. (2017). Developing and validating a nutrition knowledge questionnaire: key methods and considerations. Public Health Nutrition, 20(15), 2670-2679. doi:10.1017/s1368980017001471

Weill Cornell Medicine. (n.d). Kids and Teens Healthy Weight Program. Weill Cornell Medicine.org. HYPERLINK “https://pediatrics.weill.cornell.edu/divisions[1]programs/endocrinology/obesity-program” https://pediatrics.weill.cornell.edu/divisions[1]programs/endocrinology/obesity-program

Table 1

The Kids and Teens Weight Program Literature Survey Matrix Table

Article Citation Type of Study Method, Description, Tools Results & Key Findings Relevance to Proposed Evaluation

Cardel et al. (2020) Literary review and comparative assessment Multifactorial etiological study and observation of evidence-based interventions and programs We need to focus on evidence-based practice for managing obesity. The focus is on observable behavior, pharmacology, and surgical elements. It offers the platform for using EBP as the foundation of the interventions for obesity management programs.

Kebbe et al. (2020) A multicenter and qualitative study of the healthcare workers’ practices for weight loss. Semantic thematic analysis on the subject through inductive reasoning. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) focused on the methods and models used by caregivers. Understands weight loss programs from the qualitative perspective and inductive reasoning. It conforms to the standards and aspersions.

Martin et al. (2018) Database search and critical evaluation for relevant publication and data. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) There is a limited relationship between obesity treatment methods and cognitive development and school outcomes. It can be used to underscore the relationship between obesity management practices and school performance and commitment

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Description of the programs for obesity management Structured outline of the program’s core deliverables and routines Children exposed to a variety of interventions that have evidence-based connotations Helpful in understanding the learners’ needs and expectations.

Weill Cornell Medicine. (n.d) Description of the program Evidence-based processes and structures Focus on the practice and relevant stakeholders. Address the evidence-based outcomes and frameworks.

Table 2

The Kids and Teens Weight Program logic model

Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes

Short-term (30 days) Medium-term (1 year) Long-term (2 years)

Staff:

Cooks

Exercise experts

Cardiologists

Counselors and therapists

Nursing and clinicians

Families and teachers

Researchers

Nutrition experts Arrange programs for children