Annotated Bibliography: Global Finances
Emerson, J. (2003). The blended value Preposition: Integrating Social and Financial Returns. California Management: 45. 4, pp 35-51.
Capitalism 3.0 as a lot of people refer to it outlines a prospect to break the present structures and develop a framework of accountability which tackles the realities of the world that we stay in. it offers an opportunity to come out of the limits that people have developed by themselves and obtain a common avenue to comprehend the nature of value and strategize it to optimize the value. The article suggests that if we intend to optimize the economic value by developing monetary returns for the investors, people should not anymore be in a position to do it with no consideration of how the business execution plan is affected by the environmental and social factors. And when one intends to attain greater environmental and social justice in the world, they won’t be able unless they comprehend the economics of contemporary investment.
Capital markets in general may support any dynamics of non-profit business, however when it gets to social value investment, people have only loans and grants- with limited options for establishing real capital investment to grow ventures which are not precisely creating either economic or social value. The inadequacy of instruments hinders the attempts of the managers considering blended value, either in for-profit social investments which are emerging or within the mainstream corporations to scale their investments.
There are minimal studies regarding how appropriate to approach the establishment of a common single endorsed package of metrics through which to examine the nonfinancial performance aspects of the funds and the organizations.
The fundamental issues that came across when exploring the world of performance and measurement metrics comprise the absence of consistently effective models and general tools for reporting and measuring economic value and the minimal confidence in the element being measured.
Chang, H-J (2002) Kicking away the ladder: Development strategy in historical
perspective, London: Anthem Press: Global financial Journal, 2, 73-81
Currently there is immense pressure on the developing nations to adopt a package of “good institutions” and “good policies” to promote their economic growth. As you would expect, there have been growing concerns on whether these proposed institutions and policies are desirable for the developing nations. Nonetheless, inquisitively, even a number of people who are cynical on the implementation of these institutions and policies to the developing nations appear to take for granted that these were the institutions and policies which were applied by the developed nations at the time that they were developing.
The article, on the basis of a careful and detailed analysis of historical evidence, suggest that the matter may not be far from the facts, -developed nations did not reach where they are today through the institutions and policies which they propose to the developing nations. A lot of them aggressively applied “bad industrial policies and trade, for instance export subsidies and infant protection of industry; these practices are actively banned if not frowned upon by the World Trade Organization (WTO) presently. Very captivatingly, the USA and the UK, which a number of us perceive as models of free market and free trade policies, “were the most ardent users of such policies” during the initial phases of their development. In view of institutional establishment, up to the time that they were quite established, the developed nations had a handful of the institutions considered important for the developing nations currently; a central bank, professional bureaucracy and political democratic institutions. In fact, the developed nations had a very low-standard institutions than the current developing nations at comparable development levels
If this is what is on the ground, then aren’t the developed nations, within the disguise of proposing “good” institutions and policies. Which render it hard for the developing nations to apply institutions and policies which had allowed them to economically develop in the earlier eras? List Friedrich, an economist from German who perfected the hypothesis of “infant industry protection”, too argued so. He censured the British advocating for the values of free trade to nations for instance, the USA and Germany as effort to “kick away the ladder” which the UK used to reach to the top.
Highlighting that the claimed “good” institutions and policies proposed by Bretton Woods institutions and the governments of the developed nations has failed to establish the anticipated growth in the developing nations within the last two decades, or more, the articles proposes drastic re-thinking of financial growth strategies.
The article suggest that, the above indicated historical materials regarding the financial developmental experience of the countries which are developed need to be broadly publicized so that country which are developing can draw informed choices regarding institutions and policies. The other thing is that policy-linked conditions connected to financial aid from the World Bank and IMF need to be radically changed, in view of the fact that a lot of financial policies which are currently considered as “bad” are as a matter of fact not, and that perhaps there could be no “best”.
Martin Wolf, Fixing Global Finance (2008). Politics and Global financial growth’, Development Policy Review, 27(1):5-31.
Wolf, the lead economics commentator of the Financial Times, is broadly recognized to be the finest newspaper contributor focusing on global finance presently. Wolf’s expertise, insight and knowledge are highly valuable that one may possibly stay adequately informed concerning the global economy developments by merely reading his Financial Times column on a regular manner. In deed one would seriously recommend an evening reading his column starting from the year 2007 all through to 2010, in series, as an admirable fashion to catch up to speed with the policy and developments debates pertaining to the global financial crisis. From the fall of Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns to the dealings of Basel III and the most recent the IMF lending and voting reforms.
Wolf’s 2008 publication is fairly worth reading. He concentrates on how the policies of macroeconomics of fundamental nations (especially the United States and China) have generated “global imbalances” which rest on the heart of the present tensions regarding “currency wars” and exchange rates within the global economy. According to his view point, these imbalances of microeconomics are both prerequisite for the financial weep and the ongoing hindrance to the Great Recession. From the perspective of a political economy, this argument is critical since it shifts out attention far from the fiscal microeconomics (for instance, the swaps of default credits, and mortgage-backed equities and securities) toward serious problems (persistent payment imbalances, exchange rate regimes) that have to be looked into carefully to re-establish the global economy.
Not unexpectedly, this renders Wolf to concentrate much on politics, in his article, Wolf put in practice a well-trained vision for realizing how international relations and domestic politics structure policies of economy and have governments’ constrained willingness and ability to work together at global spheres in tacking the consequences and causes of the financial problems.
His article on “Fixing the global finance”, too has a tremendously significance introductory section on the “Blessings and Perils of Global Finance” which explores the fundamental tradeoffs confronting nations in a space of financial globalization. This memento of the rationale of fiscal markets, the benefits and costs of global financial flows, and the diverse government policy alternatives accessible to tackle the key issues of financial markets (asymmetric/incomplete information, and ethical hazard) remain vital point of start for structuring arguments regarding policies and politics of global finance.
Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, (2009). This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, Princeton University Press. Review of International Economics 6:163-182
Probably the most broadly extolled article to emerge from the contemporary global financial crisis, this work is, in a number of approaches, the quantitative accompany to Kindleberger’s stylish anecdote history of financial problems. As a matter of fact I would suggest that Rogoff and Reinhart’s genuine contribution is not this article (which to me is rather difficult to read), yet robust, massive database which they structured and made accessible to the researchers.
With remarkable care and comprehensive detail, Rogoff and Reinhart have gathered and analyzed the economic characteristics of nations and problems back to medieval Europe and 20th Centaury China. Hence, “This Time is Different” highlights the outstanding similarities of the financial problems over a period of time, cutting across various cases, highly conspicuous is the existence of “excessive debt accumulation” by banks, governments, consumers and corporations. In different sections, the authors also examine multiple kinds of problems (comprising banking crisis, exchange rates issues and sovereign defaults) in an attempt to precisely make clear why and how “This Time” is seldom (if ever) accurately “different”.
As Singer David puts it in his piece of article, this treasure data trove is simply a point to start for the political scientist; publishing similarities across crisis (even within the robustly detailed manner that Rogoff and Reinhart have done) illustrates neither discrepancy in the frequency, timing, and severity of neither issues nor the grounds why policymakers across the nations and over period of time continually adopt the kinds of policies which result into financial problems. However, “This Time is Different” remains a magisterial involvement to the area which is comprehension for political economists who are interested in the consequences, determinants and responses to monetary problems.
Raghuram Rajan, Fault Lines: (2010). How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy: Princeton University Press, Developmental International Financial Review, 27 (1):5-31
Although very much within the “crisis handbook” genre, Raghuram article stands out because of two reasons. One, Raghuram is among the few economists who would genuinely allege to have predicted to global financial crisis, since the evidence delivered by his famous contrarian publication which was presented in 2005 at the Hole Jackson conference.
Subsequently, Raghuram’s paper is more credible article than very many papers, and as a result more laudable of detailed focus. The second one and perhaps more importantly, Raghuram rapidly moves beyond the “most proximate suspects” (the villains and heroes of the “present history” and “
to focus much more on the fundamental macroeconomic trends. – the missing links of the article’s title- which caused the problem. These comprise: a) growing inequality of income and stagnation of wages in the United States, which propelled the policymakers’ motivation to offer cheaper credit cards (that was issued in the form of lax fiscal policy and subsidized mortgages) so as to sustain the living standards of the middle class. b) the imbalances of macroeconomics between the deficit and surplus nations in the global economy (concerning this see Wolf Martin) and c) strains between the various financial structure models across the nations (specifically between UK/US on one side and Japan/China on the other side.
Therefore, Raghuram eschews the decent, “magic bullet” descriptions developed by a number of other researchers, alluding instead that there is ample blame move around, with regulators, bankers, economists, households and governments all have certain obligations for creating the present financial crisis. Though this is less fulfilling on one end “blame all is to blame none” it highly in line with the perspective of political economy, whereby the causal effects, variables interacts are conditional and the results in the global economy are rottenly the outcome of a complex policies, array of interests and trends of a period of many years.
Emerson, J. (2003). The blended value Preposition: Integrating Social and Financial Returns. California Management Journal: 45. 4, pp 35-51.
Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, (2009). This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, Princeton University Press. Review of International Economics 6:163-182.
Raghuram Rajan, (2010). Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy: Princeton University Press, Developmental International Financial Review, 27(1):5-31.
Martin Wolf, (2008). Fixing Global Finance. Politics and Global financial growth’, Development Policy Review, 27(1):5-31.
Chang, H-J (2002) Kicking away the ladder: Development strategy in historical
perspective, London: Anthem Press. Global financial Journal, 2, 73-81.