Annotated Bibliography (3)

Annotated Bibliography (3)

Annotated Bibliography

Student name



King, M. L. (1963). Speech by the Rev. Martin Luther King at the ‘March on Washington’.

In this speech, Rev. Martin Luther King talks about the discrimination that the Negros were facing. He talks about how the black man in the United States is crippled by the level of segregation and discrimination they face. He stresses the importance of passing laws in order to allow equal justice for all. He does this by using an analogy of a check in place of a law. He also says that if justice is not brought to the black man, the white man will be next in line for justice. He speaks about the slow change that is happening and how any abrupt change is bad. The phrase “I have a dream” has become so synonymous with King’s speech that it is often overlooked that King didn’t even say it once during his speech at March on Washington on August 28, 1963, despite his repeated references to his “dream.

Boggs, G. L. (2011). Toward a paradigm shift in our concept of education. America’s Urban Crisis and the Advent of Color-Blind Politics: Education, Incarceration, Segregation, and the Future of US Multiracial Democracy, 106-112.

Grace Lee Boggs provides a comprehensive critique of the failures in public schools to effectively engage students. Boggs discourages the application of the traditional educational paradigms, which tend to take a “mechanistic” view of students. Mechanistic views of students are based on the idea that students are empty vessels that have to be filled with content. This type of educational approach results in a separation of academic subjects, which allows for each subject area to be taught in isolation from the other subjects. An example would be math as a subject taught by one teacher, while science is taught by another teacher, and writing is taught by yet another teacher. Because each subject is taught separately, there is an emphasis placed on making the material easy enough so that each student can focus only on their one subject area. Boggs argues that this separation of academic subjects leads to a disconnection of information and knowledge between the various subject areas.

PD. Maroon Tiger (January-February 1947): 10. Copy in GD.

In this article, “The Purpose of Education”, Maroon Tiger explores Martin Luther King’s arguments about education being both a moral and utilitarian function. Martin Luther insists that for one to achieve a critical intellect humane purposes, moral and character development are vital. For one to develop a critical intellect, they are forced to have intellectual humility and an open mind. Without these two values the individual cannot achieve an open mind and critical intellect. King asserts that we must learn how to be critical of society, but do so in a way that is not destructive. These two functions of education are very important for every citizen because in a democracy we want our citizens to hold both moral character and intellectual humility. Martin Luther King also views education as utilitarian and states that all citizens should have the fundamental skills needed for life in today’s world. He then goes on to state that without these skills, individuals cannot survive and will not be able to participate constructively in society or affect the decisions made by government officials.

Sant, E. (2019). Democratic education: A theoretical review (2006–2017). Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 655-696.

In this article, Sant presents a theoretical review of three hundred and seventy-seven peer reviewed journal articles that are published between 2006 and 2017. It examines the conceptualization of democratic education in educational scholarship. Sant states that “we learn from others and from our experiences in everyday life. As a result, there are no individual starting points or unique ways of thinking.” This can be agreed upon by the scholars, in that they view that learning is not a passive subject-matter reception but rather an active engagement with others and their environments. The scholars argue that democratic education is a learner-centered pedagogy, which means it is not just about the teacher teaching and students learning. Therefore, the article sheds more light about democracy and educational policy.

Višňovský, E., & Zolcer, Š. (2016). Dewey’s participatory educational democracy. Educational Theory, 66(1-2), 55-71.

In this essay, Višňovský and Zolcer outlines Dewey’s participatory democratic theory. The essay starts with a review of the Dewey’s conception of democracy. The authors refer to Dewey as a democratic “associative” theory of education. They then go on to explain how this conception of democracy is manifested in his educational philosophy. From there, they make an important point about the nature of instruction itself and the transition from learning about one’s world to learning about oneself-even for children at a young age. The article ends with an explanation of how this framework can be used in contemporary education today and with issues that face educators, such as the problem with standardized testing and more broadly, knowledge inequality. This essay engages issues related to participatory democratic education and its relation to both real children’s lives and their pedagogical practices outside the classroom realm. This source will assist in analyzing the relationship between democracy and pragmatism.

Dorn, E., Hancock, B., Sarakatsannis, J., & Viruleg, E. (2021). COVID-19 and education: The lingering effects of unfinished learning. McKinsey & Company, July, 27, 2021.

Emma Dorn, Bryan Hancock, Jimmy Sarakatsannis, and Ellen Viruleg, in this article, works towards describing the effects of the Corona pandemic on student wellbeing and learning. This article discusses the effects of Corona pandemic on the student body both in and outside of the education system and provides a solution to this issue. The article also points out that no one is responsible for social action, not even those that have been immune to it. The authors discuss three goals for global health: One, eliminate the remaining Corona pandemic outbreaks; Two, let everyone be productive members of society; Three, end burnout through effective communication between students and educators.

Vilchez, J. A., Kruse, J., Puffer, M., & Dudovitz, R. N. (2021). Teachers and School Health Leaders’ Perspectives on Distance Learning Physical Education During the COVID‐19 Pandemic. Journal of School Health, 91(7), 541-549.

This article discusses different perspectives of the health leaders and teachers in school. The article talks about how they feel the school leaders and teachers impact health programs. They tried to address their concerns about distance learning of physical education and why it would be difficult for them to fully implement before this pandemic. There are many different ways that online learning is impacting our classrooms today. It is no longer just a supplement for those who may not have seen the inside of a classroom in years, it has become an alternative or replacement for classroom teaching in some districts.

Yang, K. (2020). Unprecedented challenges, familiar paradoxes: COVID‐19 and governance in a new normal state of risks. Public Administration Review, 80(4), 657-664.

Yang, in this article, summarizes the main impacts of incorporating technologies to revolutionize pandemic governance. He describes that digitalization has the potential to generate lasting progress in managing pandemics. However, he argues that COVID‐19 has revealed some broader and more significant challenges, like how to guarantee individual privacy and security while giving the public more accessibility to emergency information through digitalization. In this article, Yang discusses four paradoxes of COVID-19 governance: effective governance is undermined by mistrust; traditional technology is insufficient for current needs; government agencies can be roadblocks; political paralysis slows progress.

Doutre, S., & Kolbe, T. (2020). Special education funding: Three critical moves state policymakers can make to maintain funding and bolster performance. WestEd.

This article states that a lot of funding is used to cater for the special education in various states. The authors of this article state that there are various “critical moves” that state policymakers can make in order to maintain funding. First, they believe that policymakers could focus on what needs to be done according to the law. Second, they believe that the state should use their money efficiently and dispose of the waste. They argue that this will allow the government to be able to perform their duties better and create a higher quality education. Lastly, they claim that a more diverse range of students should be educated since it is not just special needs but also other students who are struggling with different challenges in schools as well.

Kabli, A., Rizzello, A., & Trotta, A. (2021). Roadmapping new impact bonds in a post-covid world: Insights from case studies in the education sector. Sustainability, 13(8), 4121.

The article describes the major impact of Impact Bonds (I.B). on the education sector. The article is written in the form of case studies and is split up into three different sections. The first section describes how the impact bond was introduced and what it means for the education sector. The second section talks about how private companies have supported I.B programs with company-wide goals and outlines why these companies are interested in I.Bs. The third section discusses the limitations of I.B programs, but also presents that there has been a significant positive impact on organizations who have utilized them through increased collaboration, innovation, and projects that were previously considered impossible to make happen because they had not been resource-limited by traditional fundraising methods.

Willis, J., & Tanner, S. (2020). Fair and equitable reductions to state education budgets: Evidence and considerations for the 2020/21 fiscal year. WestEd.

Jason Willis and Sean Tanner, provides a comprehensive discussion in this article about the economic impacts of public-health stay-at-home orders prompted by the Covid-19 pandemic. This article is the only one to date that provides information about the potential implications of reduced public-school attendance for a state’s budget. Some states, such as Arkansas and Montana, have even begun implementing preemptive measures to protect their budgets from the expected drop in students. These states have enacted legislation that prohibits school districts from using any funds allocated for essential personnel (such as teachers) on anything other than essential personnel during this time of crisis. Other states are considering similar measures due to uncertainty about what will happen once back-to-school rolls around.

Radey, M., Langenderfer‐Magruder, L., & Brown Speights, J. (2021). “I don’t have much of a choice”: Low‐income single mothers’ COVID‐19 school and care decisions. Family Relations, 70(5), 1312-1326.

This article represents a study by Melissa Radey, Lisa Langenderfer-Magruder, and Joedrecka Brown Speights to understand a mother’s decision making process around schooling and childcare during the Covid-19 pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic has been identified as a “major, community‐level event”. Brown Speights et al. (2021) found that the Covid-19 pandemic caused an increase in fear and anxiety in mothers during the pandemic period. In line with previous research conducted on mothers during community disasters, this study sought to understand whether community disaster exposure is associated with school dropout and childcare decision making among single mothers. The source also elaborates on the role of socioeconomic context and how it contributes to the above decisions.

Matthews, L. E., Jessup, N. A., & Sears, R. (2021). Looking for “us”: power reimagined in mathematics learning for Black communities in the pandemic. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 108(1), 333-350.

This article is a reflective essay that examines new and evolving possibilities for Black leaders, families, teachers, and students in various ways that promote notions of digital equity in mathematics and learning spaces that erupted during the pandemic. This includes the use of digital tools and collaborative inquiry as a means to reinvigorate public dialogue about Black education, specifically in regards to mathematics education, and examine the ways that curriculum and pedagogy can be informed by an understanding of digital equity within a Black context. The article serves as an extension of my previous work (Gottfried, 2011), but with an emphasis on the contemporary relevance of these issues. How problematic perceptions of being Black may have shaped the conversations I’ve had with educational leaders in my role as a contributor.

Goldberg, S. B. (2021). Education in a pandemic: the disparate impacts of COVID-19 on America’s students. USA: Department of Education.

This article represents a report on the disparate effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on students in higher education, secondary, and elementary. Presented in a series of detailed tables and graphs, the article elucidates the deprivation experienced by Covid-19 survivors on their educational outcomes. The authors present evidence for their discussion of COVID-19 as not just an acute infectious disease but also as a chronic condition that has lasting effects on survivors’ lives. For decades, teachers have been tasked with managing students who function at vastly different levels in school, from gifted to struggling. These students have manifested diverse needs beginning early in life and increasingly requiring more specialized support over time.

Barnett, W. S., Grafwallner, R., & Weisenfeld, G. G. (2021). Corona pandemic in the United States shapes new normal for young children and their families. European early childhood education research journal, 29(1), 109-124.

In this article, W. Steven Barnett, Rolf Grafwallner & Georgenne G. Weisenfeld, illustrates how Corona Pandemic changed the health and education systems in the United States. It demonstrates how the pandemic affected the early childhood education in the United States and suggests a need to rethink the country’s technology, human interactions, and infrastructure. The article also gives insight into how the early childhood education system, has been affected and what changes need to be made. This article explores the effect on children and their families of the Corona Pandemic by W. Steven Barnett, Rolf Grafwallner & Georgenne G. Weisenfeld in the fields of early childhood education, health, and technology respectively. The study looks at how this pandemic has affected these three different fields by evaluating the effects of poverty on early childhood education, the research conducted by school nurses during this time period and how it impacted family members, as well as an attempt to determine if schools have taken adequate measures for health screenings for students that are more prone to contracting diseases like Corona.

Knopik, T., Błaszczak, A., Maksymiuk, R., & Oszwa, U. (2021). Parental involvement in remote learning during the COVID‐19 pandemic—Dominant approaches and their diverse implications. European Journal of Education, 56(4), 623-640.

This article discusses the parent’s approaches to remote education of the children, which was necessitated by the Corona pandemic in 2020. It also analyzes the role of parents’ perspectives involving the benefits and challenges of remote education. Moreover it presents the findings of a study conducted by the authors in Poland. The aim of this survey based on the data of 193 parents was to identify the main perceptions and attitudes regarding remote learning and its communication with children during the pandemic. The results show that, despite financial benefits, which are commonly believed to have determined parents’ involvement in remote education, there are many other factors influencing their attitudes towards it. Parents were concerned about and opposed to using smartphones to teach their children remotely both before and during the epidemic. Moreover, they didn’t consider this means of communication appropriate for such an important subject as medical training of children. This study is thus essential in understanding the advantage of involving the parent in their children.

Harju-Luukkainen, H., Wang, J., & La Torre, D. (2019). Using content analysis to compare a US urban teacher residency to a Finnish teacher education program. The Urban Review, 51(2), 247-269.

This article discusses the impact of urban teacher residency (UTR) programs in enhancing the provision of high-quality education to every student in the United States. According to these authors UTR programs provide systematic innovations regarding the preparation, retention, and recruitment of teachers. These programs provide educators with a method of gaining teaching experience and skills through a residency that takes place in a school district. They also emphasize the development of teachers’ knowledge about education policy, leadership and collaboration, instructional techniques, and the community. A content analysis from the data collected from five UTR programs in the United States was conducted to compare their elements with those of two Finnish teacher education programs. The study showed that all UTR programs included clinical practice, but there were differences between them in terms of professional training, field experience development methods, mentorship support and placement characteristics. This resource will assist me in understanding the concept of urban education and teacher education and how they can be improved.

Hodge, E. M., Salloum, S. J., & Benko, S. L. (2019). The changing ecology of the curriculum marketplace in the era of the Common Core State Standards. Journal of Educational Change, 20(4), 425-446.

This source incorporates a manuscript that describes the changing policy context of common standards and its influence on the provision of curriculum materials in U.S. The manuscript provides various innovative approaches that are being undertaken by some organizations to enhance the provision of curriculum materials in the context of common core state standards. The paper shows that the provision of updated and better quality curriculum materials to suit the needs of student’s learning will play a significant role in ensuring quality education. This source will be vital in my research since it will assist me understanding effective applications of innovative technologies to enhance efficiency in education.

Orland-Barak, L., & Wang, J. (2021). Teacher mentoring in service of preservice teachers’ learning to teach: Conceptual bases, characteristics, and challenges for teacher education reform. Journal of Teacher Education, 72(1), 86-99.

Lily Orland-Barak and Jian Wang explores key approaches to undertake teacher mentoring, which is vital when teaching students. The article concludes by providing an integrated approach to teacher mentoring, which is embedded in the instructional practice of teaching concepts. First, to be a great teacher and mentor a teacher must have leadership skills. To be a good mentor, the teacher must be interested in teaching, have good communication skills, and have some knowledge of learning theory. Both students and teachers as students should develop their competence to teach well; they also need to improve their outlook on life, work integrity and self-understanding. They also need to develop confidence with the ability to teach with generosity and empathy.