This paper seeks to analyze a concrete piece of legislation from the segregation or apartheid era. It studies a historical document and discusses what the apartheid state did and how its actions were designed to affect different people living in South Africa. Apartheid which is also known as separateness or apartness in the Dutch or Afrikaans signifies the designation that was given to the course of action of separating individuals by race, with regard to where they schooled, lived, worked, and died. It was a policy that was introduced in South Africa in 1948 by the National Party government and t remained functional until 1994. The apartheid policy governed associations between South Africa’s non-white majority and white minority and allowed racial segregation, economic and political discrimination against nonwhites (Clarke and William, 2). The rise and fall of Apartheid give a comprehensive, conversant, and clear overview of the major subjects with reference to apartheid South Africa, its establishment, development, and eventually its end. It provides a quick and enlightening entry point for those who are not much familiar with South African history, covering a wide-ranging outline of key societal, economic, and political issues. It gives an analytical and accessible understanding of apartheid South Africa. The system of racial discrimination in South Africa was executed and enforced by several acts and other laws. The legislation functioned to institutionalize racial segregation and the supremacy of white individuals over persons of other races.
The Rise and Fall of Apartheid scrutinize the history of South Africa from 1948 to the contemporary day, covering the commencement of the unjust policy when the Nationalists came to authority, its rising opposition in the 1970s and 1980s, its ultimate failure in the 1990s, and its legacy up to the current days. Apartheid was produced by Hendrik Verwoerd. He is normally referred to as the architect of apartheid for his part in influencing the execution of apartheid policy when he was a minister of native affairs and at that time prime minister. He once described apartheid as the policy of neighborliness. Apartheid policies prohibited black individuals in South Africa from entering urban areas without immediately getting a job (Clarke and William, 8). It was unlawful for someone who was black not to carry a passbook. They could also not walk down the aisle with white people. Whereas the majority of this legislation was passed after the election of the National party, it was led by discriminatory legislation sanctioned under earlier Afrikaner and British governments (Clarke and William, 15). World War II resulted in increasing economic problems in South Africa and influenced the government to reinforce its policies of racial segregation. In 1948, the Afrikaner National Party succeeded in the general election under the watchword “apartheid.” The Afrikaner nationalism renowned within a framework of increasing secondary industrialization and urbanization during the period between the two world wars, in addition to the ongoing British imperial influence in South Africa.
Many rules were passed in the formation of the apartheid nation. A number of them include the Population Registration Act, suppression of Communism Act, Bantu Education Act /Bantu Authorities Act, pass laws, Sexual apartheid among many others. For instance, when talking about the promotion of the Bantu Self-Government Act 1959, it asserted that dissimilar ethnic groups had to dwell in different regions. Just a small fraction of South Africa was left for the black individuals to make their dwellings. This law as well got rid of black spots inside white regions by moving them out of the city. Well-recognized eliminations were those in Lady Selborne, District 6, and Sophia town. As an alternative, the black individuals were put in settlements outside of the township in a way that they could not possess properties there, only rental since the land could only be possessed by white individuals. This act triggered a lot of resentment and hardship. Black people lost their dwellings, others were removed from the property they possessed for numerous years, and were placed in underdeveloped places far away from their employment places. This act made the separate places of South Africa in which affiliates of each race could dwell and work, classically putting aside the best agricultural, and, and urban places for the whites.
The Bantu Self-Governing Act restricted occupying property or renting in the places well-thought-out as white regions except when they have acquired approval from the government. The institution of the Bantu Self-Government Act of 1950 made the Bantustans for the black individuals depending on their ethnic groups. They were stripped of their rights to participate in the national government of South Africa when the Bantu Authorities Act was made. Sanctioned in 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act generated a foundation for the ethnic regime in African reserves, called the “homelands.” They were initiated by the state government to function as independent states. Black individuals were assigned to a homeland on their tribal groupings according to their record of origin. The laws were so tough to a place that black individuals needed passports to enter South Africa, the land that had previously been their country of citizenship.
The apartheid in South Africa came to an end through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and also unilateral stages by the de Klerk government. Outside protest and pressure at home eventually convinced the head of state to end apartheid. In 1990, he lifted the prohibition on the ANC and released Mandela. De Klerk and Mandela put efforts to bring to end apartheid which culminated in the 1994 multiracial general election whereby Nelson Mandela won and became the president.
Clark, Nancy L., and William H. Worger. South Africa: The rise and fall of apartheid. Routledge, 2016.