An Experiment in Psychology
In psychology, an experiment involves a set of experimental conditions, such as a comparison between two groups, the manipulation of an independent variable, and the measurement of an outcome or dependent variable. An experiment is meant to test a hypothesis. An experiment is always performed in order to answer one or more questions about human behavior. In psychology experiments are carried out using surveys and measures that have been tested on previous subjects (to ensure validity). Experiments are often designed by researchers so they can take advantage of the natural variation in behavior among participants (Doliński, 2018).
According to Doliński, an experiment in psychology is significance since through effective research a hypothesis can be proven effectively. Research is a systematic investigation into the causes of a particular effect or phenomenon, in order to determine its laws and effects. Recent research has also seen an emphasis on exploring things such as how our mind works or even how to cure cancer. For instance, research has found that people who practice positive thinking have a better life than those who do not; furthermore, it can help individuals reach their goals faster. They provide an experience of scientific discovery since there is specific testing methodologies utilized.
The main facets of an experiment are the independent variable, dependent variable, the control group, and the experimental group. The independent variable is the variable being observed. The dependent variable is the observed response to the independent variable. The experimental group is exposed to the independent variable (Doliński, 2018). The control group is not exposed to this same independent variable, but you can’t really call them “untainted” by it because they are exposed to different things that could affect their responses (e.g., not enough sleep). For example, if we were doing an experiment on sleep deprivation and how it might affect your performance on certain tasks, we would assign one group of people as “sleep-deprived” and another group as “well-rested”. Sn example of a research question that would be addressed with this method is “How does the implementation of flipped classroom approach impact student’s motivation to complete school work specifically in 6th grade?”
One major advantage of using experiment method in psychology is that it makes possible to test a hypothesis in a controlled manner. This allows for the better interpretation of experimental results, which is an essential process in the scientific method. Another benefit of experiment method is that it is flexible, allowing for many possible experimental designs.
However, one major limitation of using experiment method in psychology is that it requires outlay of resources and time on behalf of participants involved. Participants are required to go through all procedures necessary to make sure the experimentation is complete and successful before they can be acknowledged as a part.
Doliński, D. (2018). Is psychology still a science of behaviour?. Social Psychological Bulletin, 13(2), 1-14.